Maranya a Kakanyo

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Maranyane a kakanyo kgotsa (IT) ke papadi,lepeano,letlotlo le go ntsha ga modumo,ditshwantsho,mokwalo le dinomoro tsa kakanyotse di dirisanyang le motlakasedi itebagantse le go tlhakanya dikhomputara le tsa ditlhaeletsanyo.[1] Lefoko le lone ka bosha jwa go tlhaloganyesega jwa lone le bonasegile ka ngwaga wa 1958 mo koranteng ya Harvard Business Review ,e mo go yone mokwadi Leavitt le Whisler ba akgetseng gore "kakanyo e ntsha ga e na leina lele ikemetseng ka nosi lele setseng le simolodisitswe. Re tla le bitsa maranyane a Kakanyo kgotsa ka bokhutshwane (IT).".[2] Nngwe ya tsa segompino tse di tlhagogang mo ntheng ya tsa Maranyane a kakanyo ke tse di tla tlang e le, dikhomputara tsa kitso tlhabologileng , dikhomputara tsa maemo,kakanyo ya maranyane a tlhabologileng,kwa godimo kokoanyo ya kitso le tse dingwe.

Kakanyo ka kakaretso[baakanya | edit source]

kakanyo ya tsa go itsese ka maranyane mo ngwageng 2005

IT ke lefelo le go laolwang kakanyo le go paralatsa mafelo ka go faralogana aa akaretsang mme go kganelwa ke dilo tse di tshwanang le go bopelela, maranyane aa berekisang khomputara, kitso ee faphegileng , tse di dirang khomputara , kitso ee tlhalogangwang ke khomputara le go aga kitso. Ka bokhutshwane, sepe se tlhokanang le kitso,ee akanyediwang ka go bonala kana nngwe tsela,ka go dirisiwa ga di CD,ke bontlha bongwe jwa maranyane a kakanyetso. IT e thusa bagwebi ka dithuso tse nne tse di faphegileng tsa:go dira gore kgwebo e itirise ka maranyane,go tlisa kakanyetso,go ikgolaganya le bareki,le didirisiwa tse di rotloetsang maduo aa mantle.

Baitsanape ba maranyane a kakanyo ba dira ditiro tse di farologanyeng(maranyane a kakanyo aa lekanyeng) aa rulagantsweng go tswa mo go tsenyeng topo go diragatsa di toga-maano, kgolaganyo ya dikhomputara le kakanyo Nngwe ya ditiro tsa baitsanape ba maranyane a kakanyo ba ka di dirang ke go laola kakanyo,go dira le kgolaganyo, dikago tsa khomputara,go dira le kakanyo le maranyane a khomputara,le gone go laola le kokamelo ya tsotlhe ka kakaretso. Maranyane a kakanyo a simolotse go gasagasamela pele go nale go tlwaela khomputara ya motho a le mongwe le maranyane a kgolaganyo,le tse dingwe tse dintsi tse di dirisang maranyane jaaka go dirisa megala ya letlheka, disupaditshwantsho,le megala ee dirang ka esi, le tse dingwe, mo go oketsang letlhoko la ditiro.

Mo nakong ee fitlileng,lekgotla la Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology gape le la Association for Computing Machinery ba ikgolagantse go bopa maitlamo le seemo sa togamaano ka dithuto [3] tsa boemo jwa maranyaneng a katso jaaka aa pharologanyo fa a tshwantshangwa [4]le maranyane a khomputara le kakanyo ka kakaretso gompino. SIGITE (Setlhopa se se haphegileng mo thutong)[5] ke lekalana la ACM le le berekang ka ditlhopana go netefatsa maitlamo a. Dithuso ka maranyane a kakanyo lefatshe ka bophara e ne e le didikadike tsa makgolokgolo a makgolo a supa,masome a borataro le boraro ka ngwaga wa 2009.[6]

Selekanyo sa kgolo ya maranyane[baakanya | edit source]

Hilbert le Lopez [7] ba kaya kgolo ya mararanyane e fetlogang (jaaka o kare molao wa Moore):motshine oo itebagantseng le selekanyo sa go bala kakanyo go bua ka kgobololo o ntsifetse gabedi mo kgweding tse lesome le bone gare ga ngwaga wa 1986 le 2007; selekanyo sa lefatshe sa tiriso ya dikhomputara ka kakaretso se oketsegile gabedi mo kgweding di le lesome le borobabobedi mo dingwageng tse di lesome; selekanyo sa ditlhaeletsanyo tsa lefatshe ka bophara se oketsegile gabedi mo kgweding tse masome a mararo le bone; selekanyo sa letlotlo la lefatshe lotlhe le ne le tlhokana le kgobololo ya kgwedi tse masome a mane go ntsifala mo ngwageng tse (tharo); gape selekanyo sa go gasagasa kitso se ntsifetse gabedi mo kgoboleng ya ngwaga tse 12.3.[7]

onani[baakanya | edit source]

  • Kakanyo le maranyane a dipusanyo (ICT)
  • Maranyane a khomputara

Dipadi tsa kwa:[baakanya | edit source]

  1. Longley, Dennis; Shain, Michael (1985), Dictionary of Information Technology (2 ed.), Macmillan Press, p. 164, ISBN 0-333-37260-3 
  2. "information technology (subscription required)", Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.), Oxford University Press, 1989, http://dictionary.oed.com/, retrieved 20 November 2010 
  3. ABET
  4. Isbell, Charles; Impagliazzo, John; Stein, Lynn; Proulx, Viera; Russ, Steve; Forbes, Jeffrey; Thomas, Richard; Fraser, Linda et al. (December 2009), (Re)Defining Computing Curricula by (Re)Defining Computing, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM, ISBN 978-1-60558-886-5 
  5. ACM-SIGITE
  6. "Gartner Says Worldwide IT Services Revenue Declined 5.3 Percent in 2009", Gartner, http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1363713, retrieved 20 November 2010 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Nonofo ya maranyane a tsa lefatshe ka letlotlo,go itsese,le go bala maranyane", Martin Hilbert le Priscila López (2011), Science (journal), 332(6025), 60-65;go atamela koranta fa: martinhilbert.net/WorldInfoCapacity.html

Palo pele[baakanya | edit source]

  • Adelman, C. (2000). A Parallel Post-secondary Universe: The Certification System in Information Technology . Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.
  • Allen, T., and M.S. Morton, eds. 1994. Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s . New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Shelly, Gary, Cashman, Thomas, Vermaat, Misty, and Walker, Tim. (1999). Discovering Computers 2000: Concepts for a Connected World . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Course Technology.
  • Webster, Frank, and Robins, Kevin. (1986). Information Technology—A Luddite Analysis . Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  • The Global Information Technology Report 2008–2009, World Economic Forum and INSEAD, 2009, ISBN 978-92-95044-19-7, http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gitr/2009/gitr09fullreport.pdf 

Dikgoge tsa kwa ntle[baakanya | edit source]

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