Molelo

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Molelo wa ko ntle o dirisa dikgong.
The ignition and extinguishing of a pile of wood shavings.
Slow motion fire sequence 1000 frame/s

Molemo ke thakathakanyo e e diragalang ka bonako ya di gase mo tsamaisong ya combustion, e e ntshang mogote, lesedi le tse dingwe tse di farologaneng.[1] Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition.

Motuka ke bontha bongwe jo bo bonalang jwa molemo gape o na le ditlhase. Fa digase tse di fisa thata, dikgona go nna ionized go dira plasma.[2] Mmala wa motuka le bogale jwa molemo bo ya ka dilo tse dishang le dilo tse di tshelwang mo teng

Ditlamorago tsa molemo ke conflagration, se se na le bokgoni jwa go senyaka mmele ka go o fisa. Molemo ke selo sa bothokwa se se amang matshelo a batho lefatshe ka bophara. Ditlamorago tse di siameng tsa molelo ke go rotloetsa kgolo le go babalela tikologo. Molemo o sa le o dirisiw ake batho go apaya, go dira mogote, sesupo le ditiro tsa propulsion. Ditlamorago tse di bosula tsa molelo di akaretsa, go leswafatsa metsi, go senya mmu, go leswafatsa loapi le kotsi mo matshelo a batho.[3]

Ditebego[baakanya | edit source]

Maranyane[baakanya | edit source]

talaletso ya dilo ts thokegang go baka molelo.

Molelo o simolola fa selo se se thothetsang molelo, se kopane le selekanyo se se siameng sa gase ya oxygen kana sengwe se se na le oxygen, se le gaufi le motswedi wa mogote kana mogote o le kwa godimo ga flash point gore leokwane le ka kopangwa, gape gore e kgona go tshegetsa, selekanyo sa bonako jwa oxidation, e ntshang a tlhakatlhakanyo. This is commonly called the fire tetrahedron. Fire cannot exist without all of these elements in place and in the right proportions. For example, a flammable liquid will start burning only if the fuel and oxygen are in the right proportions. Some fuel-oxygen mixes may require a catalyst, a substance that is not directly involved in any chemical reaction during combustion, but which enables the reactants to combust more readily.

Fa o simolola go tuka, thathakanyo ya di gase e tshwanetse go diragala, mo eleng gore molelo o kgona go tshegetsa mogote wa one, ka go ntsha nonofo ya mogote mo tiragalong ya combustion le go propagate, fela fa go nale neelano ya gase le leokwane.

Molelo o ka timiwa ka go ntsha ditsetlana dingwe tse di bakang molelo. Sekaseka gase ya tholego jaaka go tswa mo letshegong la boapeelo. Molelo o ka timiwa ka tse di latelang:

  • • fa o tima motswedi wa gase, mo go ntsha motswedi wa leokwane.
  • Fa o kgorumetsa motuka gotlhelele, mo go fokotsa bogale jwa motuka, ka gonne combustion e dirisa gase ya oygen e e mo phefong le go e ntsha, lefelong le le gaufi le motuka o o nale CO2.
  • Go tshela metsi mo molelo go fokotsa mogote o o mo teng ka bonako go na le o molelo o ka o dirang( fa o budulela mowa mo molelong go ka fokotsa mogote, wa digase tse di shang go tswa mo leokwaneng go tshwana le ntlha e e fa godimo) kana
  • Go tshela sedirisiwa se se timang molelo jaaka Halon mo motukeng, se se kganelang thakathakanyo ya di gase, go fithelela selekanyo sa combation se nna bonya go babalela mola wa thakathakanyo.

Molelo o ka okediwa ka go oketsaselekanyo sa combustion Mekgwa ya go dira se ke go lekalekanyo leokwane le di gase tse thokegang tsa selekanyo se se rileng, go oketsa leokwane le gase mo bokopanyong jwa selekanyo se, go oketsa mogote, gore mogote wa molelo o kgone go tshegetsa go tuka ga molelo kana go tsenya sethothetsi; sethothedi se se dirisiwang gore leokwane le digase di thakathakane ka pela.

Motuka[baakanya | edit source]

Motuka wa kerese.
Senepe se se tserweng ka metsotsonya e ka nna1/4000th.

Motuka ke tlhakatlhakano ya digase le dilo tse di tswang mo teng, infrared, nako tse dingwe lesedi le le bonako, selekanyo sa lefelo le le ikaegileng ka ditebego tsa dilo tse dishang le tsibogo e e bonako. Mo nako tse dintsi, jaaka go sha ga dilo tsa tholego jaaka, dikgong, kana go sha mo go sa felelang ga gase, incadescent solid particles tse di bidiwang soot di ntsha o o tshwanang motuka o o phatsimang o o lephutshi. Lesedi le na le lefelo le le tsweletseng. Go sha mo go feletseng ga gase, go na le motuka wa mmala o motala, ka lobaka la go ntshiwa ga radiation ya bophara bo le bongwe go tswa mo phudugong ya electron mo di molecule tse di dirilweng ke motuka. Nako tse dinsi, go dirisiwa gase ya oxygen, mme Hydrogen e e tukang mo chloride le yone e ntsha motuka, mo go dirang gase ya Hydrogen Chloride(HCl). Thakanyo e engwe e e kgonang go ntsha motuka, mo go tse dintsi ke Fluorine le hydrogen le hydrazine le nitrogen tetroxide.

Go phatsima ga motuka go thakathakane. Mogote wa mmele wa radiation o ntshiwa mo gaseng ya soot, le dikarolo tsa leokwane, le fa go ntse jaalo dikarolo tsa soot di le dinnye thata go itshola jaaka mmele e mentsho e e siameng. Gape go ntshiwa photon, e ntshiwa ke di atoms le molecules tse di seng mathagathaga mo di gaseng Bontsi jwa mogote wa radiation o ntshiwa mo dilong tse bonalan. Mmala o ikaegile mo mogoteng wa mmele o montsho wa radiation, le kago ya boranyane gore go ntshiwa go kgonagale Mmala o tlwaelesegile mo motukeng o fetoga le mogote. Sekai se se siameng ke setshwantsho sa molelo wa naga. Fa go tuka mo gontsi go diragalang teng mo lefatshe, molelo o mosweu, mmala wa fa gole mogote thata wa dilo tsa tholego ke lephutshi. Fa godimo ga lefelo le lephutshi, mmala o fetogelosa mo bosetheng, se se raya gore ga go mogote thata, morago ga mmala o ke bohibidu, fa go seng mogote. Fa godimo ga mmala o mohibidu, go tuka ga go sa thole go diragala, gape dikarolo tse di sa tukang kgotsa di sa sha, ka tebego di dintsho.

Komponi ya NASA ya ko Amerika e lemogile gore gravity e tsaya karolo mo tiragalong ya motuka. Fa go nonofo ev e gogelang kwa godimo e fetolwa, se se ka baka mefuta e e farologaneng ya metuka[4] Kabakanyo ya metuka ka fa tlase ga diemo tsa gravity, di ikaegile ka go sutla ga dikarolwana mo metsing, jaaka soot e nna e gola go feta motuka o o tlwaelesegileng., jaaka mo kereseng mo diemong tse di tlwaelesegileng tsa go tsholetsega ga mmele, di dira gore o nne lephutshi. Fa go senang gravity, jaaka mo mafelong ka tikologong tse di mo lefaufaung, convection ca e sa thole e diragala, le mothuka o thuka ka go dikologa, le go rata go nna motala le bokgoni( lefa o ka kgona go tima fa o sa tshwarwe sentle, le gore CO2 go tswana mo go tukeng, ga e kabakangwe sentle fa go senang gravity, mme se se ka tima motuka). Go na le dithaloso tse di ntsi tsa di pharologanyo tse, mo e leng gore go ka kgonagaa gore mogote o kabakangwe ka go lekalekana, gore soot e seka ya dirwa le go tuka mo go feletseng go dirgala.[5] Diteko tse di dirilweng ke NASA di supa gore metuka e e thakanang fa go senang gravity, e letelela gore soot e le ntsi e thakane le digase morago e bo e dira thakanyo ya metuka mo lefatsheng, ka ntateng ya maitsholo a farologaneng a ditshidi fa go senang grafity, fa go tshwanthsangwa le fa go na le diemo tsa gravity e e tlwaelesegileng.[6] Ditemogo tse di ne tsa dirisiwa mo boranyane, le mo madirelong thatathata tiriso ya leokwane.

Mo diegeneng tse di tukang, go na le dikgatlo tse dintsi tse di tsewang go tima motuka. Mekgwa e e ikaegile mefuta ya leokwane, jaaka mafura, dikgong, leokwane le le nale nonofo e ntsi jaaka leokwane la difofane.

Mogote[baakanya | edit source]

Molelo o ntsha mogote, kana ke mokgwa wa go fudusa nonofo go tswa mo mmeleng mongwe ka lobaka la go amana le taolo ya mogote.

Megote e e etsegeng ya molelo le metuka[baakanya | edit source]

  • Motuka wa gase e e hemiwang le gase ya nonofo.
  • Motuka wa sedirisiwa sa madirelo a maranyane.
  • • Motuka wa sedirisiwa se se tsenyang kgatelelo e potlana[7]
  • Motuka wa kerese
  • Go goga motsoko
    • o Mogote o o sa tshwantshiwing: lethakore le le tshubilweng 585 °C (1,100 °F)
    • Mogote wa go tshwantshiwa: bogare jwa fa go tshubuilweng: 700 °C (1,300 °F)
    • Go nna go le mogote thata fagare.

Mogote wa metuka ka ditebego.[baakanya | edit source]

Mogote wa metuka e e na le dikarolo tsa carbon di ntsha lesedi, di ka lemogwa ka mmala wa tsone.[8]

  • Bohibidu
    • -O bonala 525 °C (980 °F)
    • o sa bonale: 700 °C (1,300 °F)
    • mmala o o sa bonaleng wa leungo: 800 °C (1,500 °F)
    • mmala o o bonalang sentle wa leungo: 900 °C (1,700 °F)
    • mmala wa leungo o o bonala sentle: 1,000 °C (1,800 °F)
  • mmala wa namune
    • Boteng: 1,100 °C (2,000 °F)
    • bonala: 1,200 °C (2,200 °F)
  • Bosweu
    • Bosweu: 1,300 °C (2,400 °F)
    • phatsima: 1,400 °C (2,600 °F)
    • galalela: 1,500 °C (2,700 °F)

Boitsaanape jwa molelo[baakanya | edit source]

Naga e ngwe le ngwe ya tholego e na le molelo wa yone, gape ditshidi mo nageng ya teng di ikaegile ka one molelo o. Molelo o dira mafelo a bodulo,lengwe le lengwe e le fa seemong se se rileng.[9] Mefuta ya dithare, diphologolo le ditshidinyana di na le bokgoni jwa go dirisang seemo sengwe, gape fa o ntse o dira o ne mafelo a, molelo o letelela mefuta e mentsi go nna mo lefelong leo.

Mekwalo e e beilweng ya ditswa mmung[baakanya | edit source]

Template:Origin of fire

Taolo ya batho[baakanya | edit source]

Motholo wa molelo wa ga Moitshephi Saint Peter Marty ka ga Antonio Vivarini.

Go laola molelo e ne e le phetogo e e neng e diragala mo matshelo a batho ba bogologolo. Go gotsa molelo, go dira mogote le lesedi, mo go ne go dira gore batho ba kgone go apaya dijo, go oketsa mefuta le go nna teng ga dikotla. Mogote o o neng o dirwa o ne o thuthafatsa batho ka mariga, o dira gore ba kgone go tshela mo fa go le tshididi. Molelo gape o ne o kgoba dibatlana. Bosupi jwa dijo tse di apeilweng, di ne tsa bonwa go tswa mo dingwageng tse didikadike tse di fetileng, le fa molelo o ne o sa dirisiwe ka mokgwa o o rileng go fithelela ka dingwaga tse 400,00 tse di fitileng. [10] Bosupi bo bo ne jwa anama ka dingwaga tse masome mathano go ya ko lekgolo tse di fitileng, go supa gore tiriso e ntsi nako le nako; mo go kgathisang, ka nako e lengwefela go leswafatsa phefo le gone ga simolola go anama, ka dipalo tse dintsi.[10] Tiriso ya molelo e ne ya simolola go nna mafathatha, o ne wa dirisiwa go dira magala le go laola ditshidi tsa naga dingwaga tse makgole a lesome a a fetileng.[10]

Molelo gape o ne dirisiwa mo dingwageng tse difitileng go bogisa le go athola, e le go fisa motho a tshela le didirisiwa tsa pogiso jaaka sethako sa tshipi, se se neng se tlatswa ka metsi, mafura kana se fisiwa ka molelo gore motho a bogisege.

ka nako ya diphetogo go tswa mo tsomeng go ya ko jwaleng dijalo, batho fatshe ka bophara ba ne ba dirisa molelo jaaka sedirisiwa sa go babalela lefatshe. melelo e ne laolwa ka go fisamlelo e e tsididi fa go tshwantshangwa le melelo e bogale e e senyang mmu. Melelo e e bogale e senyaka dijwalo le diphologolo gape e tsenya batho mo kotsing. Se ke mathata a matona mo nageng tsa gompieno fa go fisa melelo ya setso is thibelwa go rotloetsa kgolo ya dithare tse di dirang dilo tsa kago. Melelo e e seng bogale e diriwa thata ka paka ya dithobologo le thobo. go supa fa go tshubiwa ka nonofo ya ditshidi tse di suleng e sa gole sentle, se seka simolodisa melelo e e bogale. go na le mefuta e mentsi ya tikologo, e rotloetsang entsifalo ya diphologolo le ditlhare. Batho bo ne ba dira gore dinaga tse dikgothaganeng di atloge.

Go na le dipalo tse di ntsi tsa tiriso ya molelo. Fa o ka akanya sentle molelo o dirisiwa ke mongwe le mongwe mo lefatsheng ka tsela e e laolesegang. Badirisi ba dipalamo tse di dirisa molelo, ba ditisa molelo nako le nako ba kgweetsa. Madirelo a nonofo ya motlakase e kabakanya palo e ntsi ya motlakane mo bathong.

Hamburg morago ga go thuntshiwa ka Phukwi ka ngwaga wa 1943, mo go bolaileng batho ba kanna palo e 50,000: tshenyo ya jeremane.Dkgang tsa BBC.</ref>

Tiriso ya molelo mo dintlweng e sale e nna ditso. Molelo o ne o dirisiwa mo didirisiwa tsa ntwa. Hormer o ne a bua ka tiriso ya molelo ga baeteledipele ba ba gerika ba ba neng ba iphithile mo pitseng ya dikgong go fisa Troy ka na ya dintwa tsa trojan. Moragonya ba Byzantine ba ne ba dirisa molelo wa bagerika go thasela dikepe le banna, Ka nako ya ntwa ya ntlha ya lefatshe, batho ba ntlha ba ba ne ba tika melelo e ne e le dithopha tsa ntwa, gape go dikoloi tsa ntwa dine di agegile sentle. mo dintweng tse di neng tsa tla morago, dibetsa tsa ganyaolo di ne di dirisiwa ke Axis le Allies go tshwana, thatathata ko Tokyo, Rotterdam,lontone, Hamburg le Dresden, mo tiragalong tse pedi tse, ntwa ya melelo e ne simolodisiwa ka bomo e mo one molelo o ne o dikologa toropo, o ne wa gogelwa mo teng . Masole a difofane a Amerika le one a dirisa dibetsa tse kgathanong le Japane ka nako ya bone ya ntwa, mme se sa senyaka matlo a ne a agilwe ka dikgong le di pampiri. Tiriso ya leokwane e ne ya simolola ka kgwedi ya Phukwi ka ngwaga wa 1944, ko bofelo jwa ntwa ya bobedi, ntswa tiriso ya lone ga e a ka kgathegelwa ke sechba go fithelela ntwa ya Vietnam. Sebetsa sa kganyaqolo se se dirilweng ka leokwane le yone e ne e dirisiwa.

Tiriso jaaka leokwane[baakanya | edit source]

File:ChineseCoalPower.jpg
Madirelo a motlakase a dirisang magala ko China.
Matshelo a tshelelwang mo bogoleng jo bo bakilweng ke molelo ka ngwaga wa 2004 mo banni ba le 100 000.[11][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69]

Leokwane fa le tshubiwa le ntshang nonofo e e bothokwa Dikgong ke kgale di dirisiwa jaaka leokwane, le gompieno di a dirisiwa. Tiriso ya leokwane le tswang mo mmung jaaka petroleum, gase ya tholego le magala, mo madirelong a maokwane a kabakanya bontsi jwa motlakase lefatshe ka bophara mo bo gompienong; sethopa sa nonofo ya mafatshe e buile gore selekanyo se se masome a boferabobedi a motlakase a tswa mo metsweding e. [12] molelo mo madirelong a motlakase o dirisiwa go thuthafatsa metsi, go dira mosi o o dirisiwang ke mafetho. Mafetho a a tlaabo a dikolosa generatara ya motlakase go dira motlakase. Molelo o dirisiwa gape go dira ditiro, mo di engineng.

Dilo tse di salang morago ga go sha di bidiwa masalela kana molora, fa go lora go yone go le kwa tlase ga mogote wa motuka, go e kopane le go omelela jaaka e tshidifala, lefa go lora ga molora go le fa godimo ga mogote wa motuka.

Tshireletso le Thibelo[baakanya | edit source]

Mananeo a thibelo ya melelo ya naga lefatshe ka bophara, e ka dira gore go dirisiwe di tsela tsa go thibela jaakago dirisa lefelo la tholego le melelo e e laolesegang. [13][14][15] Go dirisa lefelo la naga la molelo go tewa molelo mongwe le mongwe o o bakilweng ke dilo tsa tholego, tse dilaqolesegang mmele di letelelwa go sha. Melelo e e laolwang ke meloelo e simolotsweng ke makalana a goromente, ko tlase ga diemo tsa loapi tse di seng kotsi.[16]

Makalana a a lwantshang melelo a teng mo mafelo a a tthabologileng go tioma le laola melelo e e sa laolesegeng Batima melelo ba ba ithuthuntshitsweng ba dirisa di dirisiwa tsa go tima molelo, dirisiwa tsa metsi jaaka polokelo ya metsi le dilo tse di timang molelo kana ba ka dirisa dilo dingwe ba lebeletse gore molelo o bakilwe ke enng.

Thibelo ya molelo e diretswe go fokotsa metswedi e e thothetsang molelo. Thibelo ya melelo e akaretsa go ruta batho gore ba ka emisa go simolola molelo jaang.[17] Mo dikago tse ditona thata dikole, thuthuntsho ya melelo e a diriwa go ruta botho gore ba ka itsaya jaang mo di kagong tse dishang. Go simolola molelo kana bomo ke molato ka fa tlase ga melawana mengwe.

Dikago tsa maemo a ntlha di thoka di dirisiwa tsa thibelo ya molelo le thibelo e e mathagathaga go fokotsa tsenyo e e ka bakwang ke molelo. Mofuta mongwe wa thebelo ya molelo ke mafelo a gasa metsi. Go oketsa thibelo ya melelo mo dikagong, di dirisiwa tsa kago le dilwana tsa ntlo mo mafatsheng aa thabologileng di a sekwasekwa go bona gore a ga di tshabelelwe ke molelo. kago ya didirisiwa tsa ntlo, go betla le dipolaseteke tse di dirisiwang mo dipalamong le mo ditirong tse dingwe di lekilwe.

Fa thibelo le tshireletso ya molelo e padiler, makalana a madi a tsa melelo ba ka thusa ka madi.

Paakanyo[baakanya | edit source]

Go na le mefuta le ditsela tse di farologaneng tse di dirisiwang , go ya mefuta wa molelo kaq na tshenyo ya molelo. Tsenyo ya molelo e ka dirwa ke dithopha tsa taolo ya dilwana, batho ba ba babalelang dikago, kana beng ba metse ka bo bone; mme fela go bitsa maitsaanape wa paakanyo ya tshenyo ya melelo, go thophilewe e le tsela e e siameng gape e babalesegile go baakanya dilwana tse sentsweng ke molelo. Bontsi jwa bone ba balwa kwa tlase ga paakanyo ya tshenyo ya metsi le molelo, gape ba ka kgona go thusa go paakanya ka bonako, ba baakanyetsa beng ba motse kana makalana a matona.[18]

Dikomponi tse di baakanyang ditshenyo tsa metsi le molelo di laolwa ke maphata a baji ba reki. Ko Calafonia, dipaakanyo tsotlhe tsa meklelo le metsi di kwadisitswe kwa tlase ga lekalana la ditumalano tsa go dira ka go bereka. [19] Mo bogompienong, lekalana le ga lena dithopha tsa paakanyo ya ditshenyo tsa metsi kana molelo. Mme ntswa lekalana le le batla setlankana e le sesupo gore ba letelelwe go paakanya ditshenyo tsa metsi le molelo.[20]

O ka tsibogela[baakanya | edit source]

Kago ya molelo

Template:Portal Template:Div col

  • Áed (leina le le leilweng)
  • molelo o o na le mmala
  • Go sha
  • Go tshuba moswi
  • Go tuka mo go rotloetswang ke mogote wa letsatsi
  • Molelo (Tsetlana ya maemo)
  • Tshekatsheko ya molelo
  • kelothoko ya molelo
  • Molete wa molelo
  • molelo wa phefo
  • kobamelo ya molelo
  • Teko ya motuka
  • Tsela ya botshelo e es sireletsegileng
  • Maina a melelo a ditso
  • maina a motswedi wa lesedi
  • Boitsaanape jwa go tshuba
  • Sedirisiwa se sesupa motuka wa melelo e metona e e laolesegang
  • lefoko la segerika le le rayang molelo
  • Go bola ga dilo tse suleng ka mogote mongwe o o rileng.
  • Mokgwa o sa laolesegeng wa go simolola molelo
  • Mosi
  • Letunya mosi

Template:Div col end

ditshwantsho tsa tlaleletso[baakanya | edit source]

Tse di latelang ke tse di dirisitsweng go batla kitso e e kwadilweng fa[baakanya | edit source]

  1. Template:Cite document
  2. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. "What is the State of Matter of Fire or Flame? Is it a Liquid, Solid, or Gas?". About.com. http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryfaqs/f/firechemistry.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-21 
  3. Lentile, et al. , 319
  4. Spiral flames in microgravity, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2000.
  5. CFM-1 experiment resultsTemplate:Dead link, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, April 2005.
  6. LSP-1 experiment resultsTemplate:Dead link, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, April 2005.
  7. "Pyropen Cordless Soldering Irons" (PDF). http://www.cooperhandtools.com/europe/sales_literature/documents/WellerPyropen_GB.pdf. 
  8. "A Book of Steam for Engineers", The Stirling Company, 1905
  9. Begon, M., J.L. Harper and C.R. Townsend. 1996. Ecology: individuals, populations, and communities , Third Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Template:Cite doi
  11. [56]
  12. ""Share of Total Primary Energy Supply", 2002; International Energy Agency". http://www.iea.org/statlist/index.htm. Template:Dead link
  13. Federal Fire and Aviation Operations Action Plan , 4.
  14. Template:Vancite web
  15. Template:Vancite journal
  16. Template:Vancite web
  17. Fire & Life Safety EducationTemplate:Dead link, Manitoba Office of the Fire Commissioner
  18. Begal, Bill (August 23, 2007). "Restoration With a Capital E-P-A: A Case Study". Restoration & Remediation. http://www.randrmagonline.com/CDA/Archives/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000156172. Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  19. "California Contractors State License Board". State of California. http://www.cslb.ca.gov/. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  20. "What You Should Know About Your Water Damage Or Mold Removal Company:". Rapco West Environmental Services, Inc.. http://www.rapcowest.com/water.html. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 

tshekatsheko ya bakwadi[baakanya | edit source]

==Dikgoge tsa kwa ntle ==