Ngwana

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bana ko sekolong sa primari ko Paris

Go ya ka tsa boitsanape ngwana kgotsa bana fa bale mokawana: tota fela go tlhalosega ele motho yo o fa gare ga dipaka tsa go belegwa le go tsena mo seemong sa go nna rre kgotsa mme. Dingwe tsa diteme ditlhalosa ngwana go simolola fa a ise a belegwe. Tlhaloso ya ngwana e e ka fa molao e tlhalosa fa "ngwana" e le motho yo mopotlana, fa gongwe go lebilwe dingwaga "Ngwana" fa gongwe o ka tlhalosa tomagano le motsadi kgotsa selthopha sa batho mo go ka bitswang gotwe ke lekgotla kgotsa tumelo; gape o ka kaya go amiwa thata ke dinako dingwe, mafelo, kgotsa dikgwetlho.

Ditlhaloso tse di ka fa molaong,tsa boitsanape le tsa kgolagano ya batho[baakanya | edit source]

Population aged under 15 years in 2005

Lekgotla la ditshaba la United Nation smo kwatlabolotsong ya ditshwanelo tsa ngwana e tlhalosa fa ngwana e le "motho yo dingwaga tse di ka fa tlase ga lesome le boferabobedi kgotsa fa e le sengwe Molao o tshwanetse wa amanngwa le ngwana".[1] Se se letleletswe ke mafatshe a le 192 mo go a le 194 a e leng maloko. Ditlhaloso dingwe tsa teme ya seja tlhapi e ditlhalosa lefoko "ngwana" go simolola fa a setse a sa belegwa.[2] Ka tsa boitsanape ngwana ke mongwe le mongwe yo a fagare ga paka ya go belegwa le go gola kgotsa mongwe yo o mo pakeng ya go gola ya bongwana. Bana bana le ditshwanelo tsa palo e ko tlase gona le bagolo ka gore go lemogiwa ga ba sena maikarabelo a go tsaya ditshwetso tse di rileng, gape ba tshwanetse gore ka nako tsotlhe ba bo bale ka fa tlase ga tlhokomelo ya mogolo yo o nang le boikarabelo.

Jaak ise mogolo[baakanya | edit source]

Temogelo ya fa ngwana a farologana le bagolo e simolotse go itshupa ka di sentshuri tsa bo 16 le 17. Ditlhopha tsa batho di simolotse go kaya ngwana e se mogolo yo mopotlana mme e le motho wa tsetla tse di ko tlase tsa kgolo yo o tlhokang tlhokomelo, lorato le kgotlatso ya mogolo.

Phetogo e e ka bonwa mo metakong ya Middle Ages, jaaka bana ba ne ba tshwantshiwa e le motho yo monyenyane a sena dikai dipe tsa bongwana. Ka di sentshuri tsa lesome le borataro dikapo tsa bana di tsa simolola go nna teng mme di na le ditebego tsa konokono tsa bongwana. Go simolola moragonyana ga di sentshuri tsa bo lesome le bosupa go tswelela pele ngwana o ne a supiwa a tshameka. Ditshwantsho tse di tshamekang ka bana le mafoko di ne tsa simolola go dirwa ka yone nako e.[3]

Children's Games, 1560, Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Dikakanyo go libilwe bana[baakanya | edit source]

Dikakanyo tsa maikutlo go lebilwe bana di a farologana lefatshe ka bophara mo dingwao dile mmalwa. Dikakanyo tse difetogile ga nako e ntse e tsamaya. Ditshekatsheko tsa ngwaga wa 1988 ka maikutlo a Europa ka konokono ya bana di lemogile fa lefatshe la Italy le remeletse thata mo baneng fa la Holand lone le sena sepe ka bana mo go kalokalo, fa mafatshe a mangwe o ne a tshwana le Austria, Great Britain, Ireland le West Germany a wela fa gare.[4]

Tomagano[baakanya | edit source]

Children in Namibia

Bana botlhe ba feta ka dikarolo tsa kgolo go lebilwe maikutlo le boitshwaro. Losea kgotsa ngwana yo monyennyane ba tla tshameka ba le nosi ka boitumelo. Fa ngwana yo mongwe a tsena mo tshamekong e e tsweletse le e ne o ka ntshiwa ka go garumelelwa kgotsa ka go mo kgarametsa. Mogongwe ngwana o kgona go tshameka le yo mongwe, ka bonyakabonya a ithuta go amogana le go drisa ditshono tsa gagwe. Kwa pheletsong setlhopha se a gola goya ko baneng ba le bararo kgotsa ba le bane. Ka nako e ngwana a simololang go tsena sekolo la bananyana go tla nna motlhofo mo go e ne gore a tsenelele setlhopha sa bana ba bangwe mme a simolole go natefelelwa ke lesedi le o.[5]

Ngwana yo o nang le ADHD le bogole o ka tlhoka thuso e e feteletseng go ithuta tselana tsa bo ja mmogo. Go fetoga ga dikai tsa ngwana wa ADHD di ka modira gore a nne se tshwakga mo kamanong ya gagwe le ba nkana ba gagwe. Bana ba ba tlhaelelwang ke go tsaya nako ya bone ga e kake ba inakanya le tomagano mo tikologong ya bone, se se dira gore go nne thata mo go bone gore ba ithute dikitso tsa tomagano ka lesedi le ba nang le lone.[5]

Dingwaga tsa boikarabelo[baakanya | edit source]

Template:See Dingwaga tse go akanngwang fa ngwana a na le boikarabelo mo ditshwetsong tsa gagwe sekai(lenyalo, go tlhopha, le tse dingwe fela jalo) di fetogile mo tsamao ya nako, mme se se kailwe ke tsela e ba tsewang ka yone ke makgotla a molao. Ka dinako tsa ba Roma, gone go tsewa gore ngwana ga e kake ya nna modira melato, maemo a moragonyana a ileng a amogelwa ke kereke.. Ka disentshuri tsa lesome le boferabongwe, bana ba ba ko tlase ga dingwaga tse supa gone go sa dumele gore e ka nna badira melato. Bana ba dingwaga tse di fetang bosupa bone gone go akanngwa gore ba na le boikarabelo jwa ditshwetso tsa bone. Ka mong ba ne ba ka lebisiwa dikatlholo tsa melato ya borukutlhi, ba isiwa kwa kgolegelong ya batho ba ba tona, e bo ba otlhaiwa jaaka bone ka go ba kgwathisa, go batshuba ka ditshipi le go ba kaletsa. [6] Mo bo gompieno mo mafatsheng a le mantsi jaaka Canada le United stattes, ngwana wa dingwaga tse di lesome le bobedi kgotsa go feta ba bewa ka boikarabelo jwa ditiro tsa bone mo ba ka felelang ba rometswe kwa dikgolegelong tsa pankanyo motho jaaka 1}juvenile hall.

Ditshekatsheko di lemogile fa mafatshe a ka nna masome a mabedi le botlhano lefatshe ka bophara a sena dingwaga tsa thuto e e tlhokegang gotsa e e patelesegang go ka dirwa. Dingwaga tse di ko tlase tse di sa letelelweng fa ngwana a ka bereka kgotsa go nyalwa le tsone di a farologana. Mo mafatsheng a le sekaenyana fela a le lekgolo le masome a mabedi le botlhano, bana ba dingwaga tse supa go ya kwa go tse lesome le botlhano ba ka tseelwa kwa kgotla tshekelong le kwa dikgolegelong ka mabaka a ditiro tsa borukutlhi. Mo mafatsheng a mangwe bana ka fa molaong ba patleletswa go tsena sekolo go fitlhela ba le dingwaga tse di simololang ka lesome le bone kgotsa lesome le botlhano, mme ba ka bereka pele ga dingwaga tse. Tshwanelo ya ngwana ya go rutega e gomagomediwa ke go nyalwa mo go tlang pele,pereko ya bana le go isiwa dikgolegelong.[7]


Dintsho tsa bana[baakanya | edit source]

Children rounded up for deportation to the Chełmno extermination camp. Some 1.5 million Jewish children were murdered by the Nazis.

Ka dingwaga tsabo 1600 kwa England, gone go solofelwa fa motho a ka tshela go fitlhela dingwaga di le masome a mararo le botlhano se se bakilwe ke dintsho tsa bana tse di neng di feta sephatlo sa bana botlhe ba dingwaga tse di kwa tlase ga bone.[8] Ka nako ya tshimologo ya madirelo, tsholofelo ya lebaka le ngwana a ka letshelang e ne ya oketsega fela thata.[9]

Go tsweng bo mmantswitswidi ba palo ya batho le botsogo, dintsho tsa bana difokotsegile thata go similola ka dingwaga tsa bo 1990.

Dintsho tsa bana ba dingwaga tse di kwa tlase ga botlhano difokotsegile ka 42% kwa United States fa kwa Sebia le Maylasia di fokotsegile ka 70%.[10]

Molao wa ngwana a le mongwe[baakanya | edit source]

O ka tsibogela:Molao wa bana ba le babedi

Molao wa lefatshe la Chaina wa ngwana a le mongwe o letlelela baratani go belega ngwana a le mongwe fela. Molao wa palo gotlhe ya batho wa Chaina o akgoletswe go fokotsa kgolo ya palo gothle ya batho kwa Chaina e e neng e le kwa godimo pelo ga tlhamio ya molao o. Tiriso ya molao o e kgadilwe thata ka gotwe o rotoetsa le go gatelela batho gore bo mme ba bolae masea a a sabelegwang le gore batho bantshe dikarolo dingwe tsa bong gore ba seka ba tshola. Lefa kotlhao ya boimana jo bo sa ipaakanyediwang e le katlholo ya madi, kgateleo ya polao ya lesea le le sa belegwang le go kgaola bong go itsa pelegi le tsone ke melato e e atlholwang e amangwa le leso kgotsa kgontsho ya ka bomo mme katlhao ya tse tsotlhe e ka nna dingwaga di le lesome mo kgolegelong. Fa ngwana yo mongwe a ka belegwa ko ntleng ga a le mongwe yo o letlelelwang ka fa molao batsadi bao batla duela madi a mantsi ka ba tlaabo ba duelela letsatsi lengwe le le nngwe le a tshelang ka lone.

O ka tsibogela[baakanya | edit source]

  • Go tlhoka go nna le bana
  • Kgokgontsho ya bana ka tsa tlhakanelo dikobo
  • Intekese ka dipadi ka banana
  • Tlwaelo ya ngwana

Tse di lateng ketse di dirisitsweng go batla kitso ee kwadilweng fa[baakanya | edit source]

  1. “Katloloso ya melao ya ngwana” Kgatiso ya molao, ofisi ya United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
  2. Bona Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 397 (6th ed. 2007),e e leng tlhalo ya ntlha "A fetus; an infant;...". Tsibogela ‘The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary: Complete Text Reproduced Micrographically’, Vol. I (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1971): 396, e e tlhalosang fa e le: ‘Losea le le sa belegwang kgotsa motho yo e le gone a belegwang’.
  3. Essays on childhood
  4. Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Socialization stages
  6. Juvenile courts
  7. Melchiorre, A. ( 2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court?
  8. W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). "America's promise: a concise history of the United States ". Rowman & Littlefield. p.47. ISBN 0-7425-1189-8
  9. "Modernization - Population Change". Encyclopædia ya Britannica .
  10. Child mortality rates dropping

Dikgoge tsa kwa ntle[baakanya | edit source]