Kgolo ya Ngwana

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Kgolo ya ngwana refers to the [biological, psychological] le diphethogo tsa maikutlo a tlhagelelang mo bathong magareng a matsalo  le bofelelo ba [adolescence], fa motho a tswelelapele go tloga  [dependency] go ya go kemonosi [autonomy] e e tletseng. Ke tsela e e sa feleng e o ka  akanyetsang tatelano ya yona le fa e na le tswetsopele e e itlhophileng ya ngwana mongwe le mongwe. Ga e tsweleIe ka kgato e e tshwanang mme kgato nngwe le nngwe e tshwaetswa ke mefuta/mekgwa ya kgolo e e tlhagileng pele. Ka gonne diphetogo tsa kgolo di ka tlhotlhelediwa ke [genetic factors] le ditiragalo dingwe tsa pele ga tswalo/tsalo, [genetics] le [prenatal development] gole gontsi di akareditswe jaaka bontlhanngwe jwa thuto ya kgolo ya ngwana. Mafoko a a amanang nayo a akaretsa [developmental psychology], e e kaelelwang go kgolo gotlhelele ya botshelo, le [pediatrics], lekala la tsa [medicine] le le amanang le tlhokomelo ya bana. Diphetogo tsa kgolo di diragala e le ditlamorago tsa [genetically-controlled] processes tse di bidiwang [maturation],[1] kgotsa e le ditlamorago dintlha tsa tikologo le boithuti, le fa ka setlwaedi e akaretsa tirisano magareng a tse pedi. E ka diragala e le ditlamorago tsa boleng ba motho le bokgoni ba rona go ithuta go tswa tikologong ya rona.  

Go na le mefuta e e farologaneng ditlhaloso tsa dikga tsa kgolo ya ngwana, ka ge sekga sengwe le sengwe e le tsweletsopele le pharologano ya motho go ya ka tshimololo le bofelo. Dikga le dikao dingwe tsa kgolo tse diamanang le ngwaga go ya ka makgetlho a a rileng ke: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–11 years); adolescent (ages 12–19).[2]

Theories[baakanya | edit source]

Ecological systems[baakanya | edit source]

Gape e bidiwa "development in context" kgotsa "human ecology" theory, ecological systems theory, ka tlhago e tlhamilwe ke Urie Bronfenbrenner e nankola mehuta e mene ya nested environmental systems, tse di nang le khuetso e e bi-directional ka gare le magareng ga disystemo. disystemo tse nne tse ke microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. Systemo nngwe le nngwe e nna le karolo/seabe, mareo le melao e e segololo se tonna e ka bopang kgolo. Go tloga ka phatlhalatso ka 1979, seteitemente segolo sa Bronfenbrenner mabapi le theori e, The Ecology of Human Development[3] ebile le khuetso ka bophara ka tsele ya phekelo eo dipsychologist le ba bangwe ba ithutang batho le ditikologo tsa bone. Ka ntlha ya khuetso e ya popego-theo ya kgolo, ditikologo tse — go tloga lelapeng go ya go tsa moruo le go dipopelo tsa sepolotiki — di bonwa e le karolo ya tsela ya botshelo go tloga bongwaneng go ya bogoding/kgolong .[4]

Piaget[baakanya | edit source]

Jean Piaget e ne e le seruti sa moSwiss seo se simolotseng dithuto tsa kgolo ya tlhaloganyo mengwageng ya bo 1920. Dikgatlhego tsa ga Piaget tsa ntlha e ne e le tseo di dirang ka ditsela/mekgwa eo diphoofolo/diphologolo di tlwaelang ditikologo tsa tsona ka teng mme dikwalo tsa gagwe tsa matlhale tsa ntlha ka serutwa se di ne tsa phatlhalatswa fa a le mengwaga e e lesome. Tiragalo e e ne ya mo rotloetsa go latela Ph.D. ya Zoology, eo e neng ya mo isa kwa kgatlhegong ya gagwe ya bobedi mo go epistemology.[5] Epistemology e entsha lefata go tloga go philosophy mme e dira ka tlhogo ya kitso. Piaget o ne a dumela/kgolwa gore tlhago ya kitso e tswa mo go Psychology, ka jalo o ile a ya Paris mme a simolola go dira diteko tsa ntlha tsa “standardized intelligence test” kwa Alfred Binet laboratories; se se ne sa huetsa tsela-tiro ya gagwe segolo. Fa a ntse a tsweletsa diteko tsa tlhaloganyo a simolola go godisa kgatlhego e e itlhokoditseng ya ka moo go tlhaloganya ga bana go diregang ka teng. Ka ntlha e, o ne a aga laboratory ya gagwe mme a nna mengwa a kwala ka ka moo go tlhaloganya ga ngwana go golang ka teng a ba a leka go fitlhelela ka moo bana ba golang ka teng go ya ka dikgato tse di farologaneng tsa go akanya/tlhaloganya/nagana. Se se dirile gore Piaget a tlhagise dikgato tse nne tsa botlhokwa tsa kgolo ya go tlhaloganya: sensorimotor stage (tsalo go fitlha go ngwaga wa bobedi), preoperational stage (age 2 to 7), concrete-operational stage (ages 7 to 12), and formal-operational stage (ages 11 to 12, and thereafter).[5]

Theories[baakanya | edit source]

References[baakanya | edit source]

  1. Template:Cite journalCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Kail, Robert V (2011). Children and Their Development (6th Edition) (Mydevelopmentlab Series). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-205-03494-9. OCLC 727047867. 
  3. Bronfenbrenner, Urie (1979). The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-22456-8. OCLC 4515541. 
  4. Blades, Mark; Smith, Peter K.; Cowie, Helen (2011). Understanding Children's Development. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-7601-9. OCLC 620124946. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Shaffer, David R. (2009). Social and personality development (6th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-495-60038-1.