Okanaiseišene

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Popego ya United Nations.

Okanaiseišene/Thulaganyo ke sengwe [entity] se se akaretsang bontsi ba batho[people], jaaka institution kgotsa lekgotla [association], seo se nang le maikaelelo a kopanelo a kakaretso mme se tshwaragantshitswe go tikologo ya kwa ntle.

Lefoko le tswa mo lefokong la SeGerika 'organon', leo le kayang "organ".

Mehuta[baakanya | edit source]

Dipopego[baakanya | edit source]

Types[baakanya | edit source]

Go na le mehuta ya thulaganyo, a a akaretsang corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, political organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions.

hybrid organization  ke mmele o o dirang bobeding mo public sector le mo private sector  ka nako e le esi, o diragatsa ditiro phatlhalatsa le go tlhagisa mediro ya tsa papatso tsa kgwebo.

Lekgotla la boithaopo [voluntary association] ke thulaganyo e e akaretsang baithaopi. Mafelo-bodirelo a a jalo a ka kgona go dira kwa ntle ga ditshwanelo tsa molao, go ikaegile mo sedikopusong, go akaretsa le informal clubs.

Dithulaganyo di ka dira gape kwa sephiring le/kgotsa ka fa e seng ka fa molaong mo mabakeng a jaaka secret societies, criminal organizations le resistance movements.

Structures[baakanya | edit source]

Dikomiti kgotsa juries[baakanya | edit source]

Diagram of the Federal Government and American Union, 1864.

Thuto ya madirelo e akaretsa tebelelo e e tsepameng ya organizational structure. Go ya ka management science, diokanaiseišene tse dintshi tsa botho [human ] di wela roughly mo mehuteng e mene:

  • Committees kgotsa juries
  • Ecologies
  • Matrix organizations
  • Pyramids kgotsa hierarchies

Committees or juries[baakanya | edit source]

Diekholoji[baakanya | edit source]

Tse di akaretsa setlhopha sa balekane bao batseyang tshwetso e le setlhopha, motlhamongwe ka tlhopho.  Pharologano magareng ga jury le komoti [committee] ke gore maloko a komiti ka gale ba tshwaelwa go diragatsa kgotsa go etapele tsweletso ya dikgato fa morago ga fa setlhopha se tsere tshwetso, etswa  maloko a jury o ne a tsaa tshwetso. Mo dinageng tsa  common law, dijuri tsa molao di diragatsa ditshwetso tsa ditshenyegelo tsa guilt, liability le tekanyetso; juries di dirisiwa gape mo dikgaisanong tsa mabelo; dikatsong tsa dibuka le metsamekong ya go tshwana. Ka dinako dingwe komiti ya ditlhopho e dira jaaka juri. Ka dinako tsa Middle Ages, dijuri kwa khontinenthaleng ya Europe di ne di dirisiwa go tswetelela molao go ya ka  tumalano magareng  ga boreaitse ba lefelo

Dikomiti ka gale ke tsone di ikanyegang segolo mo go tseyeng ditshwetso. Condorcet's jury theorem e bontshitse gore fa tlhopho ya leloko le le mo magareng   e le botoka go gaisa ya  [a roll of dice], ka jalo go oketsa maloko a ba bantshi ba ba ka tlang mo tlhophong e e siameng (le fa go le jalo tshiamo e tlholositswe). Bothata ke fa leloko le le mo magareng kwa morago le ka nna [worse] go na le [a roll of dice], tshwetso ya komiti e tla ba [worse], e seng botoka; ka jalo, staffing is crucial.

Ecologies[baakanya | edit source]

Matrix organization[baakanya | edit source]

Pyramids or hierarchical[baakanya | edit source]

Theories[baakanya | edit source]

References[baakanya | edit source]

Okanaiseišene e e na le go phadisana  [competition] go go tseneletseng. Dikgaolo tse sa siamang tsa okanaisešene di a gatelega. Tse di siameng di bona tiro e ntsi. Mongwe le mongwe o duelelwa tiro e ka nnete a e dirang, e bile a na le kgwebo-potlana eo e nang le katso/morokotso [profit], e seng jalo ba a lelekwa.

Dikhampane tseo di dirisag okanaiseišene ya mofuta o di tlhagisa ponelo ya lephata-lengwe ya seo se diragalang go ikholoji [ecology]. Se le sona ke mokgwa wa gore ka tlhago  [ecosystem] e na le maparego a tlhago - ecoregions go le go ntsi ga di mo kgaisanng le tse dingwe, di ikemetse ka bo tsona.

Khampane ya  pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline e bua mo ka go dira jaaka lefelo-bodirelo le  ka mo this external article e etswang mogo The Guardian. Ka Bastian Batac De Leon.

Okanaiseišene ya mofuta o e abela modiri mongwe le mongwe baokamedi ba ba bedi go tswa matsetsepelong a mabedi a a farologaneng. Leitsetsepelo le lengwe ke la tiriso "functional" mme le diragatsa gore mofuta mongwe le mongwe wa sekgoni/setswerre mo lefelo-bodirelong le thapisitswe/rupisitswe sentle, mme le lekanngwa ke mookamedi o e leng setswerre tota mo lekaleng leo.  Leitsetsepelo lengwe ke la letlhakore la  "executive" mme lona le dirisa dikgoni/ditswerre go leka go bona gore diprojeke di feditswe. Diprojeke di ka lokologantshwa ka dikungwa, didiko, mefuta ya bareki, kgotsa diskimi tse dingwe. 

Sekao, khampani e ka nna le mongwe yo o nang le maikarabelo a legotlhe a dikungwa X le Y, mme yo mongwe a ka nna le maikarabelo a le gotlhe a boinjineri, le ba taolo ya boleng, jalo jalo.  Ka jalo, badira-tlase ba ba nang le maikarabelo a taolo ya boleng a projeke X  ba tla nna le maphata a mabedi a go bega.

Hierarchy e kaya peakanyo le moetaledipele [leader] yo o etelelang pele maloko mangwe a okanaiseišene. Peakanyo e go le gontsi e goloanngwa le gore go na le kgotsa go akangwa go na le phiramiti tse di lekaneng, fa go sena mafika a a lekaneng go ka emisa tse di kwa godimo,  gravity e ka usetsa moago o mogolo o tlase moo o ka seemisiweng gape. Ka jalo o ka akanya gore fa moeteledipele a sa na ketleetso/tshegetso ya bathusi ba ba ka fa tlase ga gagwe, popelo yotlhe-yotlhe e ka phutlhama.   Hierarchies di kile tsa  satirized mo The Peter Principle (1969), buka e e tlhagisitseng hierarchiology le sekai se se reng "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."

Mo di social sciences, okanaiseišene ke sengwe se se sekasekwang ke mafapha a se makae, jaaka sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, le organizational communication. Tshekatsheko ya diokanaiseišene ka bophara ka se tlwaedi e kaiwa e  le  organizational structure, organizational studies, organizational behavior, or tshekatsheko ya okanaiseišene. Go na le maiphitlhelo a se makae a a  farologaneng, mangwe a ona a tsamaisana:

  • Go tswa go boiphitlhelelo ba tiriso, tebelelo e mo tsela eo entities jaaka dikgwebo kgotsa state authorities di dirisiwang.
  • Go tswa go boiphitlhelo bo bo leng  institutional, okanaiseišene e bonwa e le popego ya maikemisetso ka mo social context.
  • Go tswa go boiphitlhelelo bo bo amanang le tsweletso, okanaiseišene e bonwa e le sengwe seo se rulaganngwang (gape), mme tebelelo e le mo okanaiseišeneng jaaka e le [a set of tasks or actions].

Sociology e ka tlhaloswa e le the science of the institutions of modernity; specific institutions serve a function, akin to the individual organs of a coherent body. Mo social le political sciences ka kakaretso, "okanaiseišene" e ka tlhalogannwa bobebe jaaka tiro ya batho e e baakantsweng, e e lomagantsweng ebile e le ya maikemisetso e dirwa e le tiro ya kakaretso go fitlhelela maikaelelo a  tlwaelo kgotsa go aga  product e e tshwaregang. Ketso e go le gale garelwa ke maloko popo (melao ya institušene). Sociology e farologanya lefoko le okanaiseišene go diokanaiseišene tse di rulagantsweng ka tolamo le tseo di sa rulaganngwang ka tolamo (sekao, diokanaiseišene tse di tlhamilweng spontaneously). Sociology e tlhatlhoba diokanaiseišene mo mothalading wa ntlha go twsa go boiphitlhelelo jwa institušene. Ka kakanyong e, okanaiseišene ke peakangyo e e mamatletseng ya dielemente. Dielemente tse le tiro ya tsona di tswetelela ke melao gore tiro nngwe e diragatswe ka system e e lomagantsweng ya division of labor.

Ditlhagiso tsa tsa moruo/kgwebo mo diokanaiseišeneng gape di tsea pharologano ka tiro [division of labor] jaaka mathomo-mayo. Pharologanyo ka tiro e letlelela  (moruo  wa) boitseanape [specialization]. Koketso ya boitseeanape e kgonisa tomaganyo. Go tswa mo ntlha-ponelo ya tsa moruo, marekelo le diokanaiseišene ke tomagano ya theefosano go tsamaisa papatso  [transactions].

Okanaiseišene e tlhaloswa ka dielemente tseo e leng bontlhanngwe  ba yona (ke mang  e leng leloko ke mang o e seng lone?), ke tlhaeletsano [communication] (ke dielemente dife tse di tlhaeletsanang ebile di  tlhaeletsana jang?), boikemelo (ke diphetogo dife tse di tsamaisiwang ka go ikemela ga okanaiseišene kgotswa dielemente tsa yone?), le melao ya yone ya go tiragatso fa e lekanngwa le ditiragalo tsa ka kwa ntle (ke eng seo se dirang gore okanaiseišene e dira jaaka modiri-kgoboka?).

By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organization is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements. The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the degrees of freedom of the elements. Advantages of organizations are enhancement (more of the same), addition (combination of different features) and extension. Disadvantages can be inertness (through co-ordination) and loss of interaction.