Phitlhelelo Puo/Loleme

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Phitlhelelo Puo/Loleme ke tsela e batho ba fitlhelelang bokgoni go bona le go tlhaloganya polele [language], gape le go tsweletsa le go dirisa mantswe [words] le mafoko sentences] go buisana. Phitlhelelo puo ke nngwe ya dilo tse di botlhokwa mo maitshwarong a batho,[1]  ka gonne diphedi tse dingwe ga di dirisi puo go golalagana [non-humans do not communicate by using language].[2] Phitlhelelo puo go le gontsi go lebisitswe go phitlhelelo-puo-pele, e e ithutang ka moo masea a fitlheleng puo ya tsalo [native language]. Se se farologantshwa le phitlhelelo puo-pedi [second-language acquisition], eo e dirang le phitlhelelo (mo baneng [children] le bagolong) ya go atisa puo tse dingwe.

The capacity to successfully use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and an extensive vocabulary. Language can be vocalized as in speech, or manual as in sign. The human language capacity is represented in the brain. Even though the human language capacity is finite, one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which is based on a syntactic principle called recursion. Evidence suggests that every individual has three recursive mechanisms that allow sentences to go indeterminately. These three mechanisms are: relativization, complementation and coordination.[3] Furthermore, there are actually two main guiding principles in first-language acquisition, that is, speech perception always precedes speech production and the gradually evolving system by which a child learns a language is built up one step at a time, beginning with the distinction between individual phonemes.[4]

Philosophers in ancient societies were interested in how humans acquired the ability to understand and produce language well before empirical methods for testing those theories were developed, but for the most part they seemed to regard language acquisition as a subset of man's ability to acquire knowledge and learn concepts.[5] Some early observation-based ideas about language acquisition were proposed by Plato, who felt that word-meaning mapping in some form was innate. Additionally, Sanskrit grammarians debated for over twelve centuries whether humans' ability to recognize the meaning of words was god-given (possibly innate) or passed down by previous generations and learned from already established conventions: a child learning the word for cow by listening to trusted speakers talking about cows.[6]

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  2. Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Osherson, Daniel N. (1995). An invitation to cognitive science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-65045-8. OCLC 613819557. 
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  4. Fry, Dennis (1977). Homo loquens, Man as a talking animal. Cambridge University Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN 0-521-29239-5. 
  5. "Innateness and Language". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/innateness-language/#ChoCasAgaSki. 
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