Phitlhelelo Puo/Loleme

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Phitlhelelo Puo/Loleme ke tsela e batho ba fitlhelelang bokgoni go bona le go tlhaloganya puo [language], gape le go tsweletsa le go dirisa mantswe [words] le mafoko sentences] go buisana. Phitlhelelo puo ke nngwe ya dilo tse di botlhokwa mo maitshwarong a batho,[1]  ka gonne diphedi tse dingwe ga di dirisi puo go golalagana [non-humans do not communicate by using language].[2] Phitlhelelo puo go le gontsi go lebisitswe go phitlhelelo-puo-pele, e e ithutang ka moo masea a fitlheleng puo ya tsalo [native language]. Se se farologantshwa le phitlhelelo puo-pedi [second-language acquisition], eo e dirang le phitlhelelo (mo baneng [children] le bagolong) ya go atisa puo tse dingwe.

Bokgoni ba go tswelela go dirisa puo go tlhoka gore o fumane didiriswa di le dintsi di akaretsa phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, le tlotlontswe [vocabulary] e e tibileng. Puo e ka buiwa jaaka mo puong, kgotsa ka matsogo/diatla jaaka letshwao [ sign]. Boteng ba puo ya motho bo emetswe mo bobokong.  Le fa boteng ba puo ya motho bo na le bofelo, mongwe a ka bua kgotsa a tlhaloganya mafoko a a mmalwa a a se nang bofelo, se se itshetlegile mo moreong wa [[syntactic] o go tweng ke [recursion]. Sesupo se kaya gore mongwe le mongwe o na le [recursive mechanisms] tse tharo tseo di dumellelang mafoko go ba [indeterminately]. Mechanisms e me raro e ke: [relativization, complementation and coordination].[3] Gape, bonneteng, go na le two main guiding principles mo phitlhelelong ya puo ya ntlha, se ke, speech perception ka gale e etelela speech production le  the gradually evolving system seo ka sone bana ba ithutang puo se agiwang kgato e le nngwe ka sebaka/nako, o simolola ka pharologanyo magareng a individual phonemes.[4]

History[baakanya | edit source]

Lepokisi la go fitlhelela puo 

Philosophers in ancient societies ba ne ba na le kgatlhego ya ka moo batho ba fitlheletseng bokgoni ba go utlwisisa le go tlhagisa puo sesheng pele diteko tsa empirical methods tsa go leka dithiori tseo di tlhagiswa, le fa go le jalo, ba ne ba lebega ba tsaa phitlhelelo puo jaaka bontlhangwe jwa bokgoni jwa motho go ka fitlhelela kitso le go ithuta mantswe [concepts].[5] Dikakanyo tse di itshetlegileng mo tebelelong ya sesheng mabapi le phitlhelelo puo di ne tsa proposwa ke Plato, yo o akantseng gore [word-meaning mapping] ka sebopego sengwe e tsaletswe/ ke tlhago. Go tlaleletsa, Sanskrit grammarians ba ne tlhotlhomisa go feta disentshwari tse di somepedi gore a bokgoni ba motho go itse bokao ba lentswe ke ba go fiwa ke Modimo (ka tsalo/tlhago) kgotsa bo fetisitswe go tswa tshekeng tsa pele ba ithutwa go tswa go tseo di setseng di itsewa: ngwana a ithuta lefoko la kgomo ka go utlwelela dibui tse ditshepegileng di bua ka kgomo.[6]

  1. Template:Cite journal
  2. Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Osherson, Daniel N. (1995). An invitation to cognitive science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-65045-8. OCLC 613819557. 
  3. Template:Cite journal
  4. Fry, Dennis (1977). Homo loquens, Man as a talking animal. Cambridge University Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN 0-521-29239-5. 
  5. "Innateness and Language". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/innateness-language/#ChoCasAgaSki. 
  6. Template:Cite journal

In a more modern context, empiricists, like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, argued that knowledge (and, for Locke, language) emerge ultimately from abstracted sense impressions. These arguments lean towards the "nurture" side of the argument: that language is acquired through sensory experience, which led to Rudolf Carnap's Aufbau, an attempt to learn all knowledge from sense datum, using the notion of "remembered as similar" to bind them into clusters, which would eventually map into language.[1]

Proponents of behaviorism argued that language may be learned through a form of operant conditioning. In B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behaviour (1957), he suggested that the successful use of a sign, such as a word or lexical unit, given a certain stimulus, reinforces its "momentary" or contextual probability. Since operant conditioning is contingent on reinforcement by rewards, a child would learn that a specific combination of sounds stands for a specific thing through repeated successful associations made between the two. A "successful" use of a sign would be one in which the child is understood (for example, a child saying "up" when he or she wants to be picked up) and rewarded with the desired response from another person, thereby reinforcing the child's understanding of the meaning of that word and making it more likely that he or she will use that word in a similar situation in the future. Some empiricist theories of language acquisition include the statistical learning theory. Charles F. Hockett of language acquisition, relational frame theory, functionalist linguistics, social interactionist theory, and usage-based language acquisition.

See also[baakanya | edit source]