Thadiso ya kharikhulamo

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Thadiso ya kharikhulamo mokgwa-tsamaiso ya go lekola kharikhulamo (curriculum)[1] e e mo tirisong fa e tsentshiwa mo electronic database mo setting ya thuto (education) nngwe le nngwe. E tlhomilwe segolo se tonna mo tirong ya Heidi Hayes Jacobs mo Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating Curriculum and Assessment K-12 (ASCD, 1997) le Getting Results with Curriculum Mapping (2004, ASCD). Dikolo di dirisa dithempholeite tsa kharikhulamo tse dibontshang dikarolo tsa botlhokwa tsa kharikhulamo: diteng, bokgoni, ditlhatlhobo (assessments), le dipotso tsa botlhokwa.

Dingwe tsa disteite jaaka South Dakota di itsaletse thadiso ya kharikhulamo mo motheong wa steite ka bophara ebile o abela bathapiwa ba phorofeshenale ka thadiso ya kharikhulamo e e tlhamaletseng ka mogala.[2] disteite tse dingwe jaaka sa Indiana di tlhomamisitse thadiso ya kharikhulamo jaaka sediriswa sa dikolo tseo di sa kgoneng Adequate Yearly Progress le go ka aba didiriswa di le dintsi ka mogala.[3]

Senotlelo sa tsamaiso ke gore morutisi mongwe le mongwe ao tsentsha seo ka mannete a se rutileng mo nakong ya nnete tsamaong ya ngwaga, go na le go tsaya ditshoetso kwa ntle kgotsa ka komoti e e farolaganeng. Tseo di tsentshtsweng ke barutisis ga di a tlogelwa fela, empa; go ya ka seo se leng teng, ka gore tiro e bontshitswe ka go ya ka lenaane le le tlhomilweng mo internete (internet-based programs), di butswe go ka bonwa ke bathapiwa botlhe mo sekolong goba mo seterekeng/sedikong.[4] Se se dumelela barutisi go ka bona bobeding K-12 le go putlagana magato a diema le dirutiwa seo se tlhagelelang e le go itsesi le go boeletsa tiro ya bona.

Sebopego sa thadiso ya kharikhulamo ga e tlholositswe kwa tshimologong ke Dr. Jacobs e na le manamelelo a a supa[5] a dikolo di a dirisang go tlhatlhobisisa le go boeletsa kharikhulamo ya tsone. Go na le dikhampane tsa khomeshiale (commercial companies) le ditlhopha tse  s seng tsa morokotso (not-for-profit groups) tse di tlhotseng software ya thadiso ya kharikhulamo e e dirisiwang ke lefatshe go dikologa. Se se tsalaneng le thadiso, gape se farologane le yone, ke kakanyo ya go odita kharikhulamo (curriculum audit), e e tlhlosiwang ke Fenwick W. English.mo  "Deciding What to Teach and Test: Developing, Auditing, and Aligning the Curriculum" (1999, Sage).

Thadiso ya kharikhulamo ga e kganelelwe mo dikolong tsa setshaba tsa United States public schools [6] Palo ya dikolo tse di ikemetseng di itsalantse le tsamaiso ya thadiso ya kharikhulamo[7] go lekodisa le go boeletsa kharikhulamo ya tsone. Dikolo di le dintsi tse di dirisang thadiso ya kharikhulamo kwa ntle ga US ke dikolo tse di ikemetseng tseo di latelang kharilhulamo ya mashabashaba (international curriculum) (jaaka IB, AERO, kgotsa IGCSE) okgotsa dikolo tsa setshaba tse di leng mo dinageng tsa Anglo-Saxon.

Dithalo tse di amogetsweng [paakanyo | edit source]

theoTsweletso pele ya thalo e e amogetsweng  ( e gape e bitswang thalo ya botlhokwa, thalo theo, thalo ya sediko, master map) e diragala mo Phase 3 ya Heidi Hayes Jacobs’s Four Phases tsa Thadiso ya Kharikhulamo. Hale (2008) o farologantsha magareng ga thalo ya tumelano le thalo ya botlhokwa, o fega ya mathomo go bogatong ba go aga, mme ya bofelelo mo bogatong ba sediko (p. 145).[8] Jacobs (2004) tlhalosa thalo ya tumelano jaaka nngwe e  “reflects the policy agreed on by a professional staff that targets those specific areas in each discipline that are to be addressed with consistency and flexibility in a school or district” (para. 4; Jacobs & Johnson, 2009, p. 65)[9] [e tlhagisang molawana o o dumetsweng ke bathapiwa ba phorofeshenale o o lebaganeng le mafelo a disipolini nngwe le nngwe e tshwanetseng go mekamekana le one ka tolamo le go nonofa mo dikolong kgotsa didikong]. E fa sebaka, sa go naganisa tlhagiso, gore barutisi ba nne le tlhaloganyo e e tshwanang go ka buisana ka kharikhulamo ya bone ba ntse ba tlhokomedisa go nonofatsa se se siametseng ngwana mongwe le mongwe. Hale (2008) o tswela pele a re thalo ya tumelano e dira jaaka sediriswa sa puisano go ralatsa dikeletso tsa baithuto go batseakarolo (p. 145).[8] Ntekwane, e tlhagelela morago mo tlhotlhimsong ya kharikhulamo - morago ga ditlhatlhobo tsa horizontal and vertical data le morago ga tibelediso ya interdisciplinary kgotsa ya ditlhopha tse ditlhakaneng (mixed-group) (Jacobs, 2004, para. 13). Go ya ka Jacobs le Johnson (2009) ditlhopha tsa ditebelediso tse ditlhakaneng  “add a unique perspective to the process and are sometimes able to see things that other teachers do not” (p. 58).[9] [ di tlisa ponelelo ya setshwananosi mo tsamaisong ebile ka nako dingwe di kgona go bona dilo tse barutisi bangwe ba sa di bonang]. Sekao, morutitsi wa dithuto tsa selegae a ka kgona go lemoga gore baithuti ba rutwa the Holocaust kwa seemeng sa borobongwe mo dithutong tsa selegae mme gape kwa seemeng sa bo lesome Seisemaneng. Thalo e e tlhomameng e tlo leka go ka nyalaganya/nyalantsha dithutotaelo tse pedi tse, go kgaotsa poeletso e e sa tlhokegeng mme ya fa tsamaiso ya thutiso e putlaganyang didisipolini. Ka nako e, diphorofeshenale di dira mo “multiple levels and tiers” (Jacobs, n.d.), di lebeledisa dithalo go [tlhodisisa diphatlha tse di ka nnang teng, dipoeletso, kgotsa ditlogelwa]  “possible gaps, repetitions, or omissions” (Jacobs & Johnson, 2009, p. 57).[9] Se se tsea nako gape, jalo ka dithalo tsotlhe tsa dikharikhulamo, ga se ka ke sa potlakiswa ebile setshwantsho se se tonna se tshwanetso go aga se akanngwa. Phase 3 mo go Tsamaisong ya Dithalo e botlhokwatlhokwa ka gonne  “ if we don't have consensus on where we want to go, we will never get there” (Jacobs, n.d.)[10] [ge re sa fitlhelele tumelano ya koo re batlang go ya teng, ga nkitla re fitlha kwa teng].

Thalo ya tumelelano e ka akaretsa seo ba thapiwa ba sediko ba itebantshitseng le tsone ba di kaa jaaka e le “nonnegotiables that will be taught in each grade level or subject in a school or district” [tseo go sa buisanweng ka tsone tseo di tla rutiwang mo legatong la seema sengwe le sengwe kgotsa serutiwa mo sekolong kgotsa diseterekeng]   ebile se tshwanetse fo emela [ditirigalo tse ntle, tsa sentshwari ya bo masome pedi “best practices, 21st century curriculum, higher order thinking, high standards, and clearly defined grade- or course-level expectations” (Jacobs & Johnson, 2009, p. 65). Go ya ka Hale (2008), dielemente tsa yone di a gapeletsega ebile di bopegile go ya ka maemo a setshaba, morafe, kgotsa setereke, “compulsory and are designed according to national, state, [or] district… standard[s]” (p. 146).[8] Di ka akaretsa diteng, bokgoni, dipotso tsa botlhokwa, le ditlhatlhobo tse tlhokegang.

Individual curriculum maps[paakanyo | edit source]

Dithalo tsa bobosi/bonnosi tsa kharilhulamo di tsweleditswe pele ke barutisi ka bo bosi ebile di tlhagisa seo ba se rutang ka mo phaphosing kgotsa diphaphosing tsa bone. Tsone di akaretsa dipotso tsa botlhokwa, diteng, bokgoni, le ditlhatlhobo (Jacobs & Johnson, 2009, p. 115).[9] Di tlhamaletse go gaisa thalo ya tumelelano go letlelela morutisi ka esi boikemelo “allow for individual teacher autonomy” (Hale, 2008, p. 146).[8] Mo sekolong se se botlana ka seripanngwe sa serutiwa, thalo ya bobosi e fetoga go nna thalo ya tumelelano (Jacobs & Johnson, 2009, p. 65).[9] Dithalo tse di baa pepeneneng seo se diragalang ka fa phaphosing e le esi, nneteng e fa tshupetso ya se se ithutwang ke baithuti le morutisi yoo. Sekao, mo uniting e tsenyang tirong ELA Standard RL11-12.5,  go lebeletswe gore baithuti ba ithute go tlhalosa tlhopho ya mokwadi mabapi le ka moo a baakanyang ditokololo tsa sekwalwa (sekai, go tlhopha gore o simolola kae kgotsa o feleletsa kae lenoolwane, le kgetho ya gore o fa  phetso ka metlae kgotsa botlhoko) go tshwaela ka gotlhe ka sebopego le tlhaloso gape gape le go ka natefisa puo. Le fa morutisi a ka kgetha go ruta seema se a dirisa se The Crucible ka Arthur Miller, theoretically, morutisi yo mongwe a ka dirisa dinoolwane tse dikhutshwane tse di tlhomaganeng, kgotsa gongwe bukana (a novel). Le ga seemo se tshwana ebile se tlo emelwa mo thalo ya tumelelano (jalo ka ditlhatlhobo tsa setwaedi), thalo bonosi e tla bontsha pharologanyo ya diteng e e dirisitsweng ka mo phaphosing, e patilwe ke ditiragalo le tiro ya bokgoni e e ka bang botlhokwa go seripa sengwe sa dikwalwa tse di ithutwang. Jacobs & Johnson (2009) ba umaka gore, go ya ka nnete, dikolo kgotsa disetereke di kgona go lebagana le thalo ya bonosi pele, mme morago ba thale kharikhulamo e e rutiwang, le ge ba sa amogele gore dikolo dingwe di dira ka gongwe, gantsi kwa tlase ga tshsumetso ya kwa ntle go potlakisa lenaane (p. 67).[9]

Dithalo tsa tumelelano le bonosi di ka bontsha dipotso tsa botlhokwa tsa motso wa serutwa le diteng, le fa dithalo tsa bonosi di tla fa ka botlalo go ya ka ditiro tsa letsatsi ka letsatsi, ditogamaano, le ditshwaelo tse di itsiseng, practice, di tlhotlheletsa botsibi ba bokgoni le maemo a a tlhagisitsweng mo thalong ya tumelelano, ya bofelelo e tla laola tlwaelo or ditlhatlhobo tse tshwanang  tse di tshwanetseng go diragala go kgabaganya lobato lwa diphaphosi ka bongwe.   Ka go leka le go fosa e le boleng ba thalo ya bonosi, didiriswa di ka umakelwa thalo ya tumelelano. 

Go na le mananeo a mogala a a abelanang ka boleng thalong ya kharikhulamo ngwaga o  tlhe. Tsaa sediriswa sa OnCourse Systems for Education's Curriculum Builder, fa se diriswa mmogo le Lesson Planner e ka tlhola repotho e e ka bontshang maemo o tlhe a a lomagantsweng le metso le maemo a go santsaneng go tlhokega gore a lebeledisiwe.

References[paakanyo | edit source]

  1. Starr, Linda (29 May 2006).
  2. South Dakota Department of Education Office of Curriculum, Technology, & Assessment, retrieved 6 June 2010 
  3. Indiana Department of Education: Resources for Districts in Improvement and Corrective Action, retrieved 6 June 2010 
  4. Truesdale, Valerie; Claire Thompson; Michael Lucas (2004).
  5. Jacobs, Heidi Hayes.
  6. Jacobs, Heidi Hayes (November 1998).
  7. Jacobs, Heidi Hayes (Spring 1998).
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Hale, J. A. (2008).
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Jacobs & Johnson, Heidi & Ann (2009).
  10. "Consensus Maps | C3". c3ta.org.