Mosadi

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Setlhopha sa batabogi ka ngwaga wa 2010.
Bagaka ba tsa bosole kwa moletlong wa segopotso.

Mosadi ke motho yo o monamagadi. Lentswe le mosadi le dirisiwa segolo go mogodi, fa lentswe le mosetsana e le lentswe le ka setlwaedi le beetsweng ngwana kgotsa moadolesente yo o monamagadi.  Lentswe le mosadi gape le dirisiwa ka gale go supa motho yo o monamagadi go sa lebelelwa mengwaga, jaaka le dirisiwa mo difreising tsa go tshwana le "ditokelo tsa basadi" "women's rights". "Mosadi" gape le ka nne la raya boikayo-bong jwa motho (person's gender identity.[1]). Basadi bao ba nang le bokao ba tlhago gantsi ba kgona go ka tsala/tshola  [giving birth] go tloga ka nako ya puberty go fitlha ka menopause. Go ya ka go ikaya-bong, batho ba ba tlolagantshitseng bong [transgender people] bao ka botsalo go lepilweng gore ke ba ba botona [determined to be male] mme ba ikaya e le basadi ga ba kgone go ka tsala/tshola. Bangwe batho [ba-intersex]  ba ba ikayang e le basadi ga ba kgone go ka tsala ka ntlha ya gongwe e le fa ba sterilaisitse sterility kgotsa ba gotsitse Y khromosounu [inheriting Y chromosomes] e le nngwe kgotsa go feta.  Ka sewelo mo mabakeng a a rileng/a a tswileng thata, batho bao ba nang le Swyer syndrome ba ka tsala/tshola ka thuso ya melemo [medical assistance]. Go phunyeletsa ka ditso kgotsa ka histori basadi ba itseetse kgotsa ba tshwaetswe go tsea dikarolo tsa mehutahuta.

Ethimoloji[baakanya | edit source]

Go peleta mosadi ka Seisimane go tsweletse thata go ya ka meleniamo e e fetileng go tswa go wīfmann[2] go ya go wīmmann go wumman, mme bofelelong, mopeleto wa segompieno wa mosadi [woman.[3]]. Mo Seisemaneng sa kgale, wīfmann e ne e kaya motho yo monamagadi "female human", e le fa wēr e kaya motho yo motona "male human". Mann kgotsa monn e ne e na le bokao bong jo bo magareng [gender-neutral] jwa motho "human", e tsamaelana le motho 'person' kgotsa mothomongwe 'someone' ka Seisemane sa se gompieno; le fa go le jwalo, botlamoraga ga Norman Conquest, lentswe le monna le simolotswe go dirisiwa thata go kaya motho yo motona "male human", mme bofelong jwa sentshwuari ya bo-13  la khurumetsa tiriso ya lentswe la kgale wēr.[4] Tumapou f and m mo go wīfmann e hueditswe ka mo sebopegong sa gompieno sa "woman", fa ntlha ya tshimologo e e neng e kaya bonamagadi "female", e tsamaile semantic narrowing go tlisa tlhaloganyong mosadi yo o nyetsweng ("wife"). Ke misconception o o tlwaelegileng wa gore lentswe le "woman" go ya ka ethimoloji le lomagane le "womb", leo le tswang go lefoko le le farologaneng la Seisemane sa kgale, wambe  le le kayang "stomach" (sa botona kgotsa bonamagadi; SeJeremanae sa gompieno se itshwareletse ka lentswe le le colloquial "Wampe" le letswang mo go Middle High German le le kayang  "potbelly").[5][6] Le fa gontse jalo, boikaketso jo bo jaana jwa tlhago ya lentswe le "woman" e tlhagile le mo dikwalong.[7]

Biological symbol[baakanya | edit source]

Letshwao la pholanete ya Venus ke sekai gape sa sesadi  [female sex.[8]]  se se dirisiwang mo baelojing. Ke mokgwanyana wa seemedi sa seipone sa letsogo [hand-mirror] sa modimogadi Venus kgotsa letshwao la khutswafatso la modimogadi: modiko o o nang le sefapanonyana se se equilateral ka fa tlase. Letshwao la Venus gape le emela senamagadi/bonamagadi [femininity], mme ka alkhemi kgale se ne se emela koporo  [copper]. BaBoalkhemi ba agile letshwao le go tswa mo modikong (go emela mowa [spirit]) mo godimo ga sefapano se se equilateral (se emetse matter).

Terminology[baakanya | edit source]

Bosadi ke nako mo bophelong motho yo monamagadi ga a setse a fetile bongwana le boadolosense, ka setwaelo mengwageng ya bo 18.

Lefoko le mosadi le ka dirisiwa ka setlwaedi, go raya motho mongwe le mongwe yo o monamagadi kgotsa fa re nankolla, go raya mogodi mongwe le mongwe yo o monamagadi fa a bapisiwa le mosetsana. Lefoko le mosetsana tlhagong le raya "motho yo moswa jwa bong bongwe le bongwe" ka Seisimane [English];[9] e ne e le kwa tshimologong ya sentshwuari ya bo16 fa e tla go ray ngwana yo o namagadi  [a female child].[10] Lentswe le mosetsana go le gale le dirisiwa colloquially go kaya mosadi yo moswa kgotso yo a sa nyalwang; le fa go le jalo, mo metlheng ya mengwaga ya bo 1970 fa e simolola babosadi challenged tirisi ya mofuta wo ka gonne tiriso ya lefoko le go kaya mosadi yo o godileng e ne e ka tlisa kgopisanyo. Segolobogolo, mantswe a tlwaelo a a neng a dirisiwa pele jaaka mosetsana wa ofisi [office girl] ga a tlholwe a diririwa ka bophara. Conversely, mo ditsong dingwe tse di amantshang tlotla [honor] ya losika le bokgarebe [virginity] bonamagading, lefoko le mosetsana le dirisiwa go kaya lefetwa (mosadi yo a sa kakeng a nyalwa) [never-married woman]; ka mokgwa wo le dirisiwa ka tsela e e [roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden]. Go kaya motho yo monamagadi yo a sa nyalwang jaaka mosadi, mo ditsong tseo, go ka akanngwa gore o na le maiphitlhelo a tlhakanelo-dikobo, eo e ka nnang thogako losikeng lwa gagwe. [citation needed]

Go na le mafoko a mefutafuta a dirisiwang go kaya boleng ba go nna mosadi. Lentswe le "bosadi" le raya fela seemo sa boleng sa mosadi, a setse a kgabagantse menarche; "sesadi" "femininity" le dirisiwa go kaya bontlhanngwe jwa boleng jwa bonamagadi jo bo gokaganeng le maikutlo mangwe a diroles tsa bong [gender roles]; sebosadi "womanliness" se tshwana le sesadi "femininity", e fela ka setlwaedi se gokagane le ye e farologaneng  ya diroulo tsa bong; bosesadi "femaleness" ke lentswe le le tlwaelegileng, e fela gantsi le dirisiwa ka bokhutshwane go bosesadi ba motho  "human femaleness"; "distaff" ke letlhaodi la kgale le le tswang go ditiro tsa basadi tsa tlwaelo tsa mologi spinner, ga jaanong le dirisiwa fela ka maabomo archaism; "muliebrity" ke neologism (le tlhaga go Selatini) go raya [counterpart] ya bonamagadi ya "virility", e fela e dirisiwa ka go repa, ka nako dingwe go raya fela bosadi "womanhood", ka nako dingwe sesadi "femininity" ka nako dingwe gape jaaka lentswe la kakaretso la mosadi. [citation needed]

Menarche, tshimologo ya menstruation, e dirafala go tloga ka ngwaga wa 12-13. Ditso di le dintsi di na le mareo a tlodiso [rites of passag]  go tshwaa fa mosetsana a  . . . coming of age, jaaka fa a tlhomamisiwa mo makaleng a mangwe a boKresete [Christianity], [citation needed] bat mitzvah ka seJuta [Judaism], kgotsa tlwaelo ya go dira moletlo o o botlhokwa ya matsalo birthday  a mangwe (ka kakaretso magareng ga 12 le 21), jaaka Quinceañera ba Latin America.

History[baakanya | edit source]

Basadi ba pele bao maina a bone a itseweng archaeology a akaretsa:

  • Neithhotep (c. 3200 BCE), mosadi wa Narmer le kgosigadi wa ntlha wa Egepeta ya kgale [ancient Egypt].[11][12]
  • Merneith (c. 3000 BCE), consort and regent ya Egepeta ya kgale metlheng ysdinasti ya ntlha [first dynasty]. E ka be e ne e le mmusisi wa Egepeta ka bo ena. [13][14]
  • Merit-Ptah (c. 2700 BCE), le ena o dutse kwa Egepeta gape ke mosadi wa pele wa go nna ngaka [physician] le wa tsa matlhale [scientist].[15]
  • Peseshet (c. 2600 BCE), ke ngaka [physician] kwa Ancient Egypt.[16][17]
  • Puabi (c. 2600 BCE), kgotsa Shubad – kgosigadi ya kwa Ur yoo lebitla la gagwe le fitlhetsweng le na le diartifacts tsa tlhwatlhwa e e kwa godimo. Dikgosigadi dingwe tsa kwa Ur tse di itseweng tsa pele ga Sargonic (bahumagadi ba segosi) ba akaretsa Ashusikildigir, Ninbanda, le Gansamannu.[18]
  • Kugbau (circa 2,500 BCE), a taverness from Kish chosen by the Nippur priesthood to become hegemonic ruler of Sumer, and in later ages deified as "Kubaba"
  • Tashlultum (c. 2400 BCE), Akkadian kgosigadi, mosadi wa Sargon of Akkad gape e le mmagwe Enheduanna.[19][20]
  • Baranamtarra (c. 2384 BCE), prominent and influential queen of Lugalanda of Lagash. Dikgosigadi dingwe tse di itseweng tsa pele ga-Sargonic tsa dynasty ya ntlha ya Lagash di akaretsa Menbara-abzu, Ashume'eren, Ninkhilisug, Dimtur, le Shagshag, mme maina a a mmalwa a dikhumagatsana dingwe le one a a itsege.
  • Enheduanna (c. 2285 BCE),[21][22] moprisitagadi o mogolo [high priestess] wa tempele ya modimo wa Ngwedi [ Moon God] kwa  Sumerian motsemogolong wa Ur mme ka gongwe e le mmoki wa ntlha yo a itsegeng ebile e le mokwadi wa ntlha wa bong bongwe le bongwe.[23]

Biology le bong[baakanya | edit source]

The human female reproductive system
Spectral karyotype of a human female
Photograph of an adult female human, with an adult male for comparison.  Note that both models have partially shaved body hair.
Setshwantsho sa motho yo mogolo yo monamagadi, le mogodi yo motona go ba tshwantshanya. Tsaya tsia go re bobedi bo beotse bontlhabongwe ba moriri wa mmele. 

Fa re leba ka biology, ditho tsa thobalano [sex organs] tsa bosadi di amega mo reproductive system, ntswa secondary sex characteristics di amega mo go otleng bana kgotsa, mo ditsong tse dingwe, go ngoka e tona/molekane. Di ovaries, go tlhakana le tiro ya tsona ya go laola tsweletso/tlhagiso ya dihomounu, di tsweletsa digamete tsa bosadi tse di bidiwang mae [eggs] a o, fa a umisitswe [fertilized] ke digamete [sperm] tsa e tona, a bopa new genetic individuals. Popelo [uterus] ke setho se se nang le tlhono/thisu [tissue] e e sireletsang ebile e godisa le go tsweletsapele kgolo ya fetase[fetus] le mothapo/mosifa o e tlong go e alola ge e belega/tshola. Vagina e dirisiwa mokotong le fa go belegwa, le fa lentswe le 'vagina' le dirisiwa segolo setona colloquially le ka tsele e e sa tshwaneleng mo lelemeng la Seisemane go raya vulva kgotsa bokantle ba setho sa bosadi [external female genitalia], eo e nang le (ge re akaretsa le vagina) labia, lelengwana/nawa [clitoris], le urethra ya bosadi. Letswele [breast] le tlhagelela matuteng a a monate [sweat gland] go tsweletsa masi/lebese, secretion e e dikotla ke thwadi semelong  sa diamusi, yona le bophelo le pelego. Mo basading ba ba godileng, letswele le tonogile thata go gaisa diamusi tse dingwe; go tonoga go, e seng fela tsweletsong ya masi, e ka be bonnyane e le ka lebaka la kgetho ya thobalano [sexual selection]. (Ditseleng dingwe tse banna ba farologaneng ka sebopego le basadi, bona monna [[[man]]].) [citation needed]

Seseng ka nako ya fa fetal e bopega, diembryo tsa bong bobeding di tlhagalela di le gender-neutral. Jaaka mo mabakeng ao go senang bong, jaaka mehuta e e tsweletsang asexually [reproduce asexually], tlhago e e gender-neutral e kgaufi le ya bosadi go na le ya botona. Fetus gantsi e golela bonnng/botoneng fa e le exposed to a significant amount of testosterone (segolo thata ka fetus e na le Y chromosome go tswa go ntate/rre). Ga go se jalo, fetus gantsi e golela bosading, segolo thata fa fetus e na le X chromosome go tswa go ntate/rre, kgotsa gape fa ntate a sa abelana ka chromosome X kgotsa ya Y. Morago ka nako ya puberty, estrogen e feminisa lekgarebe, e mo fe semelo sa bong sa bagodi/ go gola. [citation needed]

Go se lekalekane ga go lepalepana ga dihomounu tsa bomme le dikhemikale (kgotsa diretebatsi) di ka fetola popego ya sekondari ya bong ba  difetase. Basadi ba le bantsi ba na le karyotype 46,XX, fela a le mongwe go ba ba sekete o tla ba le 47,XXX, gape a le mongwe go ba ba 2500 o tla baana le 45,X. Se se ganana le karotype ya bonna tota  ya 46,XY; ka jalo, di chromosomes X le Y  di itsiwe ka bonamagadi le botona,  go ya ka tatelano. Ka gonne batho ba gotsa fela mitochondrial DNA go tswa mo ovum ya mme, dithuto tsa genetic tsa bonamagadi ka gale di lepa mitochondrial DNA.Botswana

Le fa ngwana a kaiwa le yo monamagadi se ga se ga ntsi se kaya gore mo nakong e e tlang ngwana yo o tla ikaya jalo (lebelela gender identity). Sekao, intersex individuals, ba seemo le/kgotsa popego ya tlhago tse di tswakaneng, ba ka dirisa bokao bongwe fa ba tlhekisa ikano ya bone. Kwa tsalong, bana ba ka fiwa bong go ikaegilwe mo dithong tsa bona tsa bong. Mo mabakeng a mangwe, le fa ngwana a na le dichromosone tsa XX, fa a tsetswe ka ntsutsu, ba godisiwa ka botona.[24]  Go na gape le transgender le basadi ba transsexual, bao ba neng ba kailwe ka botona fa ba tsalwa, e fela ba kaiwa jaaka e le basadi; go na le ditlhaloso tse di farologaneng tsa lephedisano, semolao, le  boleng tseo di leng mabapi le kgang e.  (lebelela trans woman).Botswana

"The Life & Age of Woman - Stages of Woman's Life from the Cradle to the Grave",1849

Le fa bonnyane go tsalwa ba ba namagadi go na le ba ba tona  (selekanyo se tsamaela go 1:1.05), ka ntlha ya botshelo jo bo eletswang jo be telele go na le banna ba le 81 fela ba ba leng mo mengwageng ya 60 kgotsa go feta mo basading ba le 100 ba mengwage e e tshwanang. Basadi go le gontsi ba tshela sebaka se se telele go gaisa banna. [25] Se setlholwa ke mabaka a a tlhakaneng :genetics (redundant and varied genes present on sex chromosomes in women); sociology (jaaka lebaka la gore merafeng ya sešeng ga go a lebelelwa mo gore basadi  ba ka tsenela tiro ya bosole [military service]); dikgetho tsa maphelo [health-impacting] (tse jaaka go ipolaya [suicide] kgotsa go goga sekarete, le go nwa bojalwa [alcohol]); go nna teng ga homounu ya bonamagadi  estrogen, yeo e nang le cardioprotective effect mo basading ba premenopausal; le di effect tsa high levels of androgens mo banneng. Go tswa go palogotlhe ya batho/setšhaba, go na le banna ba ba 101.3 go 100 lengwe le lengwe la basadi (source: 2001 World Almanac).Botswana

Mosadi o amusa leseana la gagwe

Mebele ya basetsana e tsamaya diphetogo ga nnyane ga ba le mo nakong ya puberty, go tshwana le fa go tlhaologile le maitemogelo a basimane.  Puberty ke tsamao ya diphetogo tsa lebopo eo mmele wa ngwana [child's body] o golang go mmele wa mogodi go kgona [sexual reproduction] go kgonisa fertilisation. E tlhotlholetswa ke ditshupetso tsa di homounu [hormonal signals] go tswa mo bokong brain  go ya go gonads-e ka nna diovari kgotsa ditestes. Go arabela ditshupetso, di gonads di ntsha dihomounu tseo di sisinyang libido le kgolo, tiro, le phetogo ya boboko, marapo [[[Lerapo|bones]]], mesifa [muscle], madi     [blood], letlalo [skin], moriri [hair], matswele [breasts], le ditho tsa thobalano [sexual organs]. Physical growth—boleele le boima- di  and weight—accelerates mo karolong ya ntlha ya puberty gape e fela fa ngwana a tlhagisitse mmele wa bogodi. Go fitlhelela kgolo ya bokgoni ba go tswetsa tsalo, pre-pubertal, dipharologano tsa popo magareng ga basimane le basetsana ke di genitalia, ntsutsu [penis] le phene [vagina]. Puberty ke tsamao e go le go ntsi e diragalang magareng ga mengwaga ya bo 10–16, e fela megwaga e e farologane go ya go mosetsana go mosetsana. Tshupokgolo fa mosetsana a le mo puberty ke menarche, tshimologo ya go ya sesading [menstruation], eo e diragalang bonnyane magareng a mengwageng ya bo 12–13.[26][27][28][29]

Basetsana ba le bantsi ba ya through menarche gape ba kgona go ka ima [pregnant] ba tshola bana [bear children].[30] Se ka setlwaedi se tlhoka internal fertilization ya mae a gagwe ka sperm sa monna ka thobalano [sexual intercourse], le fa artificial insemination kgotsa go jalelela ka karo [surgical implantation] ga embryo  e e le teng le yone go a kgonagala (lebelela reproductive technology). Thuto ya tsa tlhagisotsalo ya bonamagadi le ditho tsa tlhagiso [reproductive organs] e bitswa gynaecology.Botswana

Tsa bophelo[baakanya | edit source]

Mosadi yo o moimana

Pholo ya basadi di kaya dio dingwe tsa maphelo tse di lebaganeng thwi le pholo ya basadi ya ditho-popego tsa bonamagadi. Go malwetsi mangwe a segolo se tonna a tlhomarang basadi, jaaka lupus. Gape, go na le malewetsi mangwe a a tsalanang thata le bong [gender-related illnesses] a a bonong kgafetsa kgafetsa kgots fela mo basading, sekao, kankere ya matswele [breast cancer], cervical cancer, or ovarian cancer. Basadi le banna ba na le matshwao a a farolaganeng a bolwetsi gape ba ka responta ka go go farologaneng kalafing ka ditlhare. Karolo e ya diphuphutso/dinyakisiso e ithutiwa ke ba gender-based medicine.Botswana

Kgang ya pholo ya basadi e tseetswe godimo ke bontsi ba  feminists, segolo thata moo go amanang le reproductive health. Pholo ya basadi e filwe leemo magareng a bophara mmeleng wa kitso e e nopolwang, go ba bangwe, ke World Health Organisation, eo e beyang botlhokwa bonng jaaka e le ekaego ya  tsa pholo .[31]

Maternal mortality kgotsa maso a botswetse a tlhaloswa ke ba  WHO jaaka e le "leso la mosadi fa e le moimana kgotsa sebakeng sa matsatsi a 42 a phediso/pheletso ya boimana, go sa tlhaole gore ke sebaka se se kae goba lefelo le lefe la boimana, go tloga go mabaka a a ka bong a amana le go kgotsa a ronkgile ke boimana kgotsa tsamao ya bone e seng go tswa kotsing kgotsa mabaka a kotsi."[32]  Bo nnyane diperesente di le 99% tsa maso a boimana a diragala mo dinageng tse di santseng di ikaga. Go feta seripa sa ona go diragala kwa sub-Saharan Africa  gape bogolo ngwe-tharong kwa South Asia. Mabaka magolo a maso a pelego ke go tsorotla madi (segolo go tswa madi fa morago ga tsholo ya ngwana ), tshwaetso (ka tlwaelo fa morago ga tsholo ya ngwana), pre-eclampsia le eclampsia, khutliso-boimana e e sa bolokegang, le boimana bjo bo kgweleaneng ka ntlha ya bolwetsi ba letadi [malaria] le HIV/AIDS.[33] dinaga di le dintsi tas Yuropa, Australia, le Japane le Singapore di bolokegile that mabapi le tsa tsholo ya bana, fa dinaga tsa Sub-Saharan di le diphata tota.[34]

Ditokelo le tokologo ya Reproductive[baakanya | edit source]

A poster from a 1921 eugenics conference displays the U.S. states that had implemented sterilization legislation.

Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics has stated that:[35]

(...) ditokelo tsa botho tsa basadi di akaretsa tokelo tsa bone go ka laola godimo ga le go tsea kgato ka tokologo le boikarabelo mo mabakeng a a amanang le bong ba bone, go akaretsa tsa pholo ya bong le itsweletso, kwa ntle ga kgapeletso, kgethololo le kgwetlho. Bolosika bjo bo lekanang magareng ga basadi le banna mo mabakeng a tsa botsalano bonng le itswalong, go akaretsa tlhompho ka botlalo go tlhompha botho ba motho,go tlhoka tlhompho ya pelegano, tumelano le kabelano ya maikarabelo go maithswaro a bong le ditlamorago tsa ona. 

Tlolo ya ditokelo tsa itsweletso di akaretsa boimana ka kgapeletso [forced pregnancy], go imisiwa ga kgapeletso [forced sterilization] le khutliso-boimana ka kgapeletso [forced abortion].

Go emisiwa ka kgapeletso go ne go dirisiwa nakong seripeng sa ntlha sa sentshuari ya bo 20th bogolo ke dinaga tsa Bophirimatsatsi. Go emisiwa ka kgapeletso le khutliso-boimana ka kgapeletso di begwa e le mekgwa e sešeng e dirisiwang mo dinageng tse di jaaka Uzbekistan le China.[36][37][38][39][40][41]

Tlhokego ya melao e e maleba ya tsa kgwetlo ya thobalano e tlhakane le  The lack of adequate laws on sexual violence combined with the lack go tlhokega ga phitlhelelo go dithibela-pelego   [contraception] le/kgotsa khutliso-boimana [abortion] ke mabaka a kgapeletso ya boimana (lebelela boimana ka peto [pregnancy from rape]).Botswana

Ditiro ka setso le bong[baakanya | edit source]

Mosadi yo o logang. Tiro ka Textile kwa ga lowe le ka histori le mo ditsong di le dintsi, ke modiro wa bahumagadi/basadi

Mo ditsong di le dintsi tsa prehistoric, basadi ba tsere karole e e rileng  ya setso. Mo ditšhabeng tsa botsomi-le-bokgobokelo [hunter-gatherer], basadi  ka karetso e ne e le bakgoboketsi ba dijo tsa dijalo, diphoofotswana, dijonyana tsa diphoofotswana le ditlhapi, fa banna ba tsoma nama ya diphoofolo tse kgolo.  Botswana

Mo setšheng, dikarolo ka bong di fetogile e le tota. Kwa ga lowe, go tloga bonnyaneng, kgatlhegelo ya ditiro e ne segolo e lebisitswe ntlheng e e rileng go ya ka bong.[42] Go ya ka dingwao, basadi ba klase ya magareng [middle class women] ba ne ba amega mo ditirong tsa segae segolo thata tsa tlhokomelo ya bana. Basadi ba ba humanegi bone, bogolo ba klase ya go dira [working class], le fa se gantsi e setse e le se se eletswang, maemo a tsa moruo a ba gapeleditse go batla tiro kwa ntle ga legae. Ditiro di le dintsi tse di neng di le teng mo go bone e ne e le tse di duelang madi a a kwa tlase go lekannwga le tseo di leng teng go banna.  Botswana

Fa diphetogo mebarakeng ya madirelo di tla di e ba teng, go ba gona ga bothapiwa go fetogile fela go tloga tirong ya 'ditshila', diureng tse ditelele tsa mediro ya kwa difekethering go ya go ditiro tse di "tlhwekileng", tse di tlhomphegang tsa diofisi tseo di neng di tlhoka thuto, botseakarolo ga basadi kwa madirelong a kwa U.S.go tlhatlhogile ka 6% ka 1900 go ya go 23% ka 1923. Go suta go go badiredi go tlisiitse diphetogo mo maikutlo a basadi kwa tirong, gwa dumelela go tla ga menololo ya ditiro eo ditswamorago tsa yone di direlng basadi go nna career and education oriented.Botswana

Ka nako ya Ntwa ya Bobedi ya Lefatshe [World War II], basadi bangwe ba ne ba dira ditiro tseo ka ditso tsa dinako tseo go ne go twe ke tsa bonna.

Ka bo 1970s, diachademiki tsa bomme di le dintsi, go akaretsa ba thutamatlhale, di ne tsa ikatologanya le go tshola bana. E fela, go phunyeletsa di 1980s, diinstitushene di lekile go lekalekanya maemo a banna le basadi  tkwa mafelobodirelo. Le fa go le jalo, go se lekalekane fa kwa gae go ragile ditšhono tsa basadi go ka atlega jaaka banna.  Basadi ba diprofeshenale ba santsane  ba lebagane le mediro ya selegae le tlhokomelo ya bana. Jaaka fa batho ba a tle ba bue, ba na le "mekgweleo 'mebedi" eo e sa ba letleleleng nako le matla a go ka tswelela ka tsa ditiro.  Le gone, le fa go ne go na le go oketsega ga tekatekanyo ya go tsea karolo tsa bong ka mo gae bobeding ga banna le basadi, thuto-nyakisiso ya sešeng e bontshitse gore basadi ba itebagantse le tsa morality, fairness, and well-being, fa banna ba itebagantse le social conventions.[43] Go fitlhela ka tshimologong ya sentshuari ya bo 20th, dikholotshe tsa basadi kwa U.S. di ne di required gore ditokololo tsa fakhalti tsa basadi di nne di sa nyalwa, se se itshetlegile mo goreng mosadi a ka se kgone go ka tswelela a tshwere  di full-timeprofeshene tse pedi ka nako e le nngwe.  Go ya ka Schiebinger, " Go nna wa tsa matlhale o le mosadi ebile o le mme ke mokgweleo mo setšhabeng se se solofelang gore basadi go le gontsi go feta banna ba bea lelwapa pele ga ditiro tsa bone. [Being a scientist and a wife and a mother is a burden in society that expects women more often than men to put family ahead of career.]" (pg. 93).[44]

mekgatlho e emelela equality of opportunity bong ka bobedi le equal rights go sa kgathalatsege bong. Ka tswakatswakano ya diphetogo tsa tsa moruo [economic] le maiteko a mokgatlho ya bahumagadi [feminist],Template:Specify mo mengwagasomeng ya jaanong basadi mo merafeng e le mentsi ba na le phitlhelelo ya mediro e e kwa godimo ga ya maloba ya kagolegae [homemaker].

Etswa palo e kgolwane ya basadi e batla thuto e e kwa godimo, dituelelo gantsi di kwa tlase ga tsa banna. dikgang tsa CBS News ka 2005 di tleimile gore mo United States basadi ba ba mengwageng e 30 go ya go 44 gape ba na le dikiri ya unibesithi ba dira diperesente di le 62 ya  banna bao ba nang le dithuto tsa go tshwana le tsa bone, kelo e e ka tlasenyana ga dinaga tse di 19 kwa ntle ga tse tharo kwa dipalo di fumanegang. ditšhaba dingwe tsa Bophirimatsatsi tseo di duelang dituelo tse di sa  lekalekaneng ke Jeremane, New Zealand le Switzerland.[45]

Kgwetlho kgatlhanong le basadi[baakanya | edit source]

Khampheini kgatlhanong le female genital mutilation – letshwao la tsela kgaufi le Kapchorwa, Uganda.
Phiso ya baloi, fa bangwe tshwerwe ka mo Stokseng/Legoreng
Motšha wa mosadi ethnic Chinese yo o neng a le mongwe wa basadi ba Imperial Japanese Army's "comfort battalions" – bao ba neng ba gapeletswa go gweba ka mmele –o botsolotswa ke  mo ofisiri wa Allied.

Kgoeletso ya mo phedisong ya Kgwetlho kgatlhanong le Basadi [UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women] e tlhalosa  "kgwetlho kgatlhanong le basadi [violence against women]" jaaka:[46]

gape e itsise mekga e meraro ya kgwtlho e jalo:  eo e diragalang ka mo lelapeng, eo e diragalang ka mo gare ga motse ka le gotlhekgotsa bophara, le eo  e tlhotlheletswan kgotsa rotloetswang ke Mmuso. E gape e begang gore"kgwetlho kgatlhanong le basadi ke itshupo ya matla a ka histori a sa lekaneng  magareng a banna le basadi." [47]

kgwetlho kgatlhanong le basadi ke bothata jo bo phatlhaletseng , bo tlhotlholetswa, segolo thata kwa ntle ga Bophirima, ke maemo a setshaba a bong tona, tlhokego ya melao e e maleba , le tlhokego ya tsenyo tirong ya melao e e le teng. Dingwao tsa setšhaba tse di leng teng dikarolong tse ntsi tsa lefatshe di kgoreletsa tswelopele go iseng tshireletsong ya basadi kgatlhanong le kgwetlho. Sekao, go ya ka paloboka tsa UNICEF, palokgolong ya basadi ba ba mo mengwageng ya   15–49 ba ba naganang gore mogatso o loketswe go ka otlhaya kgotsa a otla mosadi mo mabakeng a a rileng e kgolo go ya go  90% kwa Afghanistan le Jordan, 87% kwa Mali, 86% kwa Guinea le Timor-Leste, 81% kwa Laos, le 80% kwa Central African Republic.[48] Paloboka tsa 2010 e e dirilweng ke Pew Research Center e fumane gore kgobotlo ka majwe [stoning] jaka kotlhao ya bootswa [adultery] e ne e thuswa ke 82% ya bafetodi kwa Egepeta [Egypt] le Pakistan, 70% kwa Jordan, 56% Nigeria, 42% kwa Indonesia.[49]

Mekga e e maleba ya kgwetlho e e amang basadi e akaretsa go sugutla ditho tsa bosadi [female genital mutilation], kgwebo ya thubalano [sex trafficking], kgapeletso ya kgwebo ka mmele [forced prostitution], kgapeletso nyalo [forced marriage], petelelo [rape], tshwenyo ka thobalano [sexual harassment], dipolao tsa go tlhompha [honor killings], go kolopa esiti [acid throwing], le kgwetlho e e amanang le tuelo-bogadi [dowry related violence]. mmebuso e e ka e kgatholosa mo kgwetlhong kgatlhanong le basadi, sekao, ka meetlo ya go tshwana le kgobotlo ka majwe  for instance through practices such as [stoning] (jaaka e le kotlhao ya bootswa).

Go ntse go na le mekgwa e mentsi ya kgwetlho kgatlhanong le basadi go ya ka histori, e e neng e atile, e e supegang e le go tshubiwa ga baloi [burning of witches], go tlhabela ka baswagadi  [widows] (jaaka sati) le pofo maoto [foot binding]. Tshekiso ya basadi bao ba pateletswang ka boloi e na le setso se se telele, sekao,  diteko tsa boloi tshimologong ya pako ya sejwale [witch trials in the early modern period] (magareng a disentshuari tsa  15th and 18th) di ne di tlwaelegile kwa Europe gape le kwa dikoloneng tsa ma Yoropa kwa North America. Gompieno, go setse di dikodiko tsa lefatshe (jaaka dikarolo tsa Sub-Saharan Africa, lefelo-magae la North India, le Papua New Guinea)   tumelo boloing e tserweng tsia ke batho ba le bantsi, gape basadi ba patelediwang gore ke baloi ba gatelelwang ka kgwetlho e e masisi tota. [50][51][52] Go tlaleletsa, go na le dinaga dingwe tseo di nang le melawana ya borukhutli kgatlhanong le boloi. Kwa Saudi Arabia, boloi ke eme e le borukghutlhi jo kotlo ya bone e leng loso [punishable by death], gape ka 2011 naga e e ile ya kgaola mosadi tlhogo ka ntlha ya boloi  [ 'witchcraft and sorcery'].[53][54]

Gape ke molato gore dikgwetlho dingwe kgatlhanong le basadi di bonwa e le ditsa e le ditlolomolao tsa borukhutlhi  mo dinakong tsa sešeng, mme ga di ganelelwe ka gotlhegotlhe, ka gonne dinaga di le dintsi di tswetse pele go di letlelela. Se se jalo segolo mo molatong wa petelelo lenyalong [marital rape].[55][56] Kwa Lefatsheng la Bophirimatsatsi, go ne go na le tshoetso ya go netefatsa tekatekano ya bong [gender equality] lenyalong [marriage] le  tshekiso ya kgwetlho selegae [domestic violence], e fela dikarolong tse dintsi tsa lefatshe basadi ba sa ntsane be tseelwa ditokelo tsa molao tse di botlhokwa fa ba tsena mo lenyalong.[57]

Kgwetlho ya thobalano kgatlhanong le basadi e oketsega thata metlheng ya dintswa [war] le dikgotlhang tsa marumo [armed conflict], metlheng ya futugelo ya sesole [military occupation], kgotsa difutugelo semorafe [ethnic conflicts]; segolo thata ka mokgwa wa petelelo tsa ntwa [war rape] le bokgoba ba tsa thobalano [sexual slavery]. Dikao tsa sešeng tsa kgwetlho ka thobalo metlheng ya ntswa di akaretsa petelelo metlheng ya Ntwa ya Tokologo ya Bangladesh [rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War], petelelo ka Ntwa ya kwa Bosnia [rape in the Bosnian War], petelelo metlheng ya Polaomogofe ya kwa Rwanda [rape during the Rwandan Genocide], le petelelo metlheng ya Ntwa ya Bobedi ya Congo [rape during Second Congo War]. Kwa Colombia, kgotlhang ya marumo e feleletse e okeditse kgwetlho kgatlhanong le basadi ya thobalano.[58]

Melao le melawana ya kgwetlho kgatlhanong le basadi di atlhologane go ya ka sedikopuso. Kwa European Union, tshwenyo ya thobalano le go kgwebo ka motho di kwa tlase ga ditaelo [directives].[59][60]

Moaparo, kaparo le direo tsa diaparo[baakanya | edit source]

Basadi ba MaAfghan ba apere  burqas. Basadi bangwe ba ma Muslim ba apera hijabs le diaparo dingwe tsa mefuta jaaka letshwao la bokgabane le  symbol of modesty and bofitlha.

Basadi mo dikarolong di le dintsi tsa lefatshe ba apara ka ditsela tse di farologaneng, ka ditlhopho tsa bone tsa moaparo di rutloetsa ke dingwao tsa sediko, metheo ya tumelo, semelo sa setšhaba, le metsamae ya moaparo, go mabaka a mangwe. Ditšhaba tse di fapafapaneng di na le dikakanyo tse di farologaneng ka bokgabane [modesty]. E fela, mo di dikopuso di le dintsi, ditlhopho tsa basadi bapabi le moaparo ga di a tlhophologa, ka melao e kganela seo ba ka se aparang kgotsa ba se se apare.  Se ke sekai mabapi moaparo wa seIsilamo        [Islamic dress]. Lefa di dikopuso dingwe ka se molao di dumeletse moaparo oo ( go ka apara mofapha-tlhogo), dinaga dingwe di ganetsa kgotsa di thiba go ka apara moaparo mongwe wa hijab  (jaaka burqa/ go kgurumetsa sefatlhego) mo mafelong a a mo pontsheng (naga e jalo ke France - bona kganetso ya go khurumetsa sefatlhego ya kwa Forantshe [French ban on face covering]). Melao e e ke kgang e e masisi e le tota.[61]

Kumiso le botshelo ba lesika[baakanya | edit source]

Mmapa wa lefatshe o o bontshang dinaga go ya ka tekanyo ya go umisa [total fertility rate] (TFR), go ya ka CIA World Factbook's 2015 data.
Palokgolo ya tsa tsalo ya basadi bao ba sa nyalwang, dinageng tse di tlhophilweng 1980 le 2007.[62]

Tekanyo ya kumiso e e feleletseng [total fertility rate] (TFR) - palo bogare ya bana ba ba belegweng ke mosadi botshelong jwa gagwe jotlhe - e farologane segolo thata magareng a di diko tse di farologaneng tsa lefatshe. Ka 2013, palo  e e kwa godimo e akantsweng ya TFR e ne e le kwa Niger (7.03 ya bana e ne e tsholwa ke mosadi a le mongwe) mme e e kwa tlasenyana e le kwa Singapore (0.79 bana/mosadi).[63] Le fa dinaga di le dintsi mo Sub-Saharan African di na le TFR e kwa godimo, e e tlholang mathata ka ntlha ya tlhokego ya ditsweletsi gape e na le seabe mo go ateng ga batho [overpopulation], dinaga di le dintsi tsa kwa Bophirimatsatsi go le jaana di itemogela sub replacement fertility rate e e ka isang go population ageing le population decline.

Mo dikarolong di le dintsi tsa lefatshe, go nnile diphethogo di le dintsi tsa seemo sa lesika dingwagasome tse di fetileng. Sekao, kwa Bophirima , go ne go na le tsamao ya go ikatologanya le dipaakanyetso tse di akaretsang go dula/tshela le leloko-tshika  extended family go tseo di nang le nuclear family. Go na gape le tsamao ya go tloga go nyalo e e umisang go ya go eo e sa umiseng. Bana ba ba belegweng kwa ntle ga lenyalo ba ka tswa ba belegwa fo tswa go cohabiting couples kgotsa go single women. Le fa tsalo kwa ntle ga lenyalo e tlwaelegile e bile e amogetswe ka botlalo dikarolong dingwe tsa lefatshe, kwa mafelong mangwe di a sotlakakwa e le ruri, ka bomme ba ba sa nyalwang ba lebane le kgethololo, e e akaretsan kgwetlho e e tswang mo malokong a  masika a bone, gape mo mabakeng a a feteletseng tota ba a bolawa ka dipolao tsa tlotlo [honor killings].[64][65]  Go tlaleletsa, thobalano kwa ntle ga lenyalo [sex outside marriage] e ntse e se ka mo molaong dinageng tse dintsi (jaaka Saudi Arabia, Pakistan,[66] Afghanistan,[67][68] Iran,[68] Kuwait,[69] Maldives,[70] Morocco,[71] Oman,[72] Mauritania,[73] United Arab Emirates,[74][75] Sudan,[76] Yemen,[77]).

Tseokarolo ya mme [mother] setšhabeng e farologane magareng ga ditso. Dikarolong di le dintsi tsa lefatshe, basadi bao ba nang le bana ba ba ikaegileng mo go bone go lebeletswe gore ba dule gae ba neele matla a bone otlhe kgodisong ya  bana, fa kwa mafelong mangwe (segolo thata dinageng tsa Bophirimatsatsi) bomme go le gontsi ba boela morago ditirong tsa tuelo mothers most often return to paid work (lebelela mme yo o dirang [working mother] le mme yo o dulang gae [stay at home mother]).

Bodumedi[baakanya | edit source]

Ditumelo tse di rileng di na le dintlha tse itseng tse di amanang le kabelano tiro ka bong [gender roles], tirisanommogo ya social le ya go ithuna magareng a bong, go apara diaparo go go siameng ga basadi, le dilo tse difapaneng tse di amang basadi le boemo jwa bone setšhabeng. Kwa dinageng di le dintsi, dithuto tsa ditumelo tse di tshusumetsa molao wa borukhutlhi [ criminal law], kgotsa molao wa losika [family law ] di dikopusong tseo.  (Lebelela sekao molao wa Sharia law). Dithulaganyo tsa ditšhabatšhaba di buisane thata mabapi le botsalano magareng a bodumedi, molao le tekatekano ya bong.[78]

Thuto[baakanya | edit source]

Thuto ya bahumagadi [Female education] e akaretsa makgetlho a tekatekano ya bong le phitlhelelo ya thuto, le ka moo e kopaneng le go phokotso ya bohuma. Gape dilo dingwe tse di amegang ke dithuto tsa bong-bongwe [single-sex education] le thuto bodumedi ka ntlha ya gore karologanyo ya thuto go ya ka bong gape le ka dithutiso tsa bodumedi go tloga kgale e le tsone di tsepameng mme di santsane di le botlhokwa segolo thata mo dikgannyeng tsa setšheng go ruteng bahumagadi jaaka e le kgang e e etsweng tlhoko ka bophara.

Le fa mokgatlho wa tsa bohumagadi o tlhatlositse botlhokwa jwa dilo tseo di amanang le thuto ya bahumagadi, dikgannye tse di namile ka bophara ebile ga di tlholoswe ka bokhutshwane. Di ka akaretsa, sekao, thuto ka AIDS.[1] Thuto ka gotlhe, se se kaya gore thuto e puso e e abelang phoraemari le sekonthari ikemetse kwa ntle ga bong [independent of gender] ga e ise e nne  setlwaelo ka bophara [global norm], le fa go itshengwa jalo  dinageng di le dintsi tse ditsweletsengpele. kwa dingang dingwe tsa Bophirimatsatsi, basadi ba gaisitse banna maemomg a mantsi a thuto. Sekao, kwa United States ka 2005/2006, basadi ba duetswe 62% ya associate degrees, 58% ya bachelor's degrees, 60% ya master's degrees, le 50% ya doctorates.[2]

Basadi ba tsenetse dithuta-bogolo kwa El Alto sedikong sa La Paz, Bolivia.
Mohumagadi wa biologist o lekanya khudu ya sekaka [desert tortoise] pele a a lokolola.

Literacy[baakanya | edit source]

World literacy e kwa tlase mo bahumagading go na le mo go ba botona. CIA World Factbook e bega di tekanyetso tsa go tloga  2010 tseo di bontshang gore 80% ya basadi e kgona go buisa le go kwala, go lekanngwa le 88.6% ya banna (ba mengwageng ya 15 le go feta). Ditekanyetso tsa go kgona go buisa le go kwala di kwa tlasetlase kwa Borwa le Bophirima ba Asia, le kwa dikarolong tsa Sub-Saharan Africa.[79]

Dinaga tsa OECD[baakanya | edit source]

Thuto[baakanya | edit source]

Gender gap ya tsa thuto kwa dinageng tsa Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) e fokoditswe go tsweng mengwageng 30 e e fetileng. Basadi ba batšha gompieno jaana go na le kgonego ya gore ba ka fetsa dithuto tsa bona tsa theishari: kwa dinageng tse 19 tsa tse 30 tsa OECD, bogolo go feta gabedi basadi ba le bantsi ba mo mengwageng ya bo 25 go ya go 34 ba feditse dithuto tsa bone tsa theishari go na le basasdi ba ba mo mengwageng ya bo 55 go ya go 64. Kwa dinageng di le 21 tsa tse di 27 tsa OECD go ya ka data e e ka lekelekanngwang, palo ya basadi ba ba alogileng go tswa go manaena a maemo a yunibesithi e lekana kgotsa e feta ya banna. Basetsana ba mengwaga e le15 ka gale ba bontsha ditsholofetso tsa kwa godimo tsa tsa thuto tsa bone go na le basimane ba mengwaga e e tshwanang le ya bone.[80] Le fa basadi ka palo ba feta seipagare sa dialogane tsa yunibesithi kwa dinageng tse mmalwa tsa OECD, ba amogela fela 30% ya degree tsa theishari tse di fiwang bao ba leng ka mo mafapheng a tsa matlhale le tsa boenginere, mme basadi ka palo ke ba ba  25% go ya go 35% fela mo dinageng di le dintsi tsa OECD ba e leng ba dipatlisiso.[81]

Go santse go na le dikgopolelo tse di fapologileng tsa tlwaelo tsa gore basadi ga ba ise ba phunyeletse go fitlhelela di digree tsa bo akhademiki. Go ya ka Margaret Rossiter, mo historian wa tsa matlhale, basadi jaanong jaan ba amogela diperesente tse 54 tsa di digree tsa bachelor tsotlhe kwa United States. Le fa go le jalo, le fa go na le basadi ba le bantsi bao ba nang le di digree tsa bachelor go gaisa banna, fa maemo a thuto a tlhatlhoga, banna ka bontshi ba aga ba fitlhelela tsa dipalopaloTemplate:Clarify go na le basadi. Kwa maemomg dikalogo [graduate level], basadi ba tlatsa diperesente di le 40 tsa di digree tsa doctorate (persente tse 31 tsa bone e le ba boengenere).[82]

Le fa basadi go fitlha jaanong ba ithuta kwa diyunibesithing tsa maemo a kwa godimo go ya ka tekano go tshwana le banna, Template:Clarify ga ba fiwe tšhono ya go ka tsena mo fakhalting. Sociologist Harriet Zuckerman o itemogetse gore bogolo fa institute e le ya maemo a a kwa godimo, ke ka moo go ileng go ba bothata le go go ja nako, gore basadi ba fumane leemo ka mo fakhalthing moo. Ka 1989, Harvard University e ntshitse mosadi wa bone wa ntlha go chemistry, Cynthia Friend, gape ka 1992 mosadi wa ntlha go physics, Melissa Franklin. Le ene o itemogetse gore basadi go le gontsi ba ka itsholela maemo a bona a professional lekga la ntlha jaaka batlhapetsi le batlhatlheledi fa banna  go le gontsi ba ka dira la ntlha mameong tenure. Go ya ka Smith le Tang, go tloga ka 1989, banna ba persente ya 65 le basadi ba peresente e le 40 percent ba tshwere maemo a leng tenured fa peresente tse 29 fela ya tsa ba matlhale le boenginere di thapilwe jaaka bathusi ba diphrofesera kwa dikholetsheng le diyunibesithi tsa four-year e le basadi. [83]

Mediro[baakanya | edit source]

Ka 1992, basadi ba ne ba duelwa diperesente tse di 9 tsa di Ph.D. tse di abilweng mo engineering  fela peresente e le nngwe ya basadi bao e nnile mophrofesara. Ka 1995, diperesente di le11tsa diphrofesara tsa tsa matlhale le boenjinere e ne e le basadi. Ka tekanyo, e fela di dean tse 311 tsa dikolo tsa boinjinere e ne e le basadi, eo e tlhaelang ka peresente e le 1 ya palotlalo. Le mogo psychology,  degree eo basadi ka bontsi ba fumanang diPh.D., ba tshwere ka bontsi maemo a mmalwa a a tenured, bonneteng diperesente tse 19 ka 1994.[84]

Basadi dipolotiking[baakanya | edit source]

A world map showing female governmental participation by country, 2010.
Mepe wa lefatshe o o bontshang bahumagadi ba ba tsaang karolo mopusong go ya ka dinaga, 2010.
Angela Merkel o humane maemo a a kwa godimo mo listing ya FORBES ya Basadi ba Dinatla mo Lefatsheng mo mengwageng e e robedi ya e lesome e e fetileng.[85]

Basadi ba emetswe-tlase mebusong ya dinaga di le di ntsi. Ka 2013 Diphalane, tekanyo bogareng ka sediko ya basadi ba ba leng makgotlheng a setšhaba ke 22%.[86] Suffrage ke tokelo ya botho ya go kgetha [vote]. Women's suffrage in the United States e ne ya wediwa ka bonya, sa ntlha boemong ba state le selegae, go simolola ka bofelong jwa sentshwuari ya bo19 le tshimologong ya senthwuari ya bo 20, mme ka 1920 basadi kwa US kgetho ya legotlhe, ge go fetiswa Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Dinaga dingwe tsa Bophirimatsatsi di ne tsa iketla go ka dumelela basadi go kgetha; segolo Switzerland, moo basadi ba unneng ditokelo tsa go ka kgetha mo dikgethong tsa feterale tsa 1971, mme mo canton ya Appenzell Innerrhoden basadi ba ne ba fiwa tokelo ya go ka kgetha dintlheng tsa selegae fela ka 1991, fa canton e ne e e gapeletswa ke Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland;[87][88] le Liechtenstein, ka 1984, e le ka ntlha ya Liechtenstein women's suffrage referendum, 1984.

Tsa Matlhale, dikwalwa le botaki[baakanya | edit source]

Mmoki wa MoGerika Sappho

Basadi ba, go ya ka histori, dirile ditshwaelo go tsa matlhale, dikwalwa [literature] lebotaki [art]. Karolo e le esi eo basadi go ya ka histori, ba neng ba dumeletswe go e fitlhelela thata  ke ya obstetrics le gynecology (pele ga senthwuari ya bo 18, tlhokonelo ya basadi ba baimana kwa Yuropa e ne e le ka fa tlase ga basadi; go tlogeng bogareng ba senthwuari ya bo18  kelotlhokomelo ya tsa phodiso ya basadi ba baimana e ne ya simolola go tlhoka thuto ya tlhamalalo, eo basadi ka gale ba neng ba sa e fitlhelele, ka jalo tiro e e ne ya neeletswa banna).[89][90]

Go kwala go ne ka tlwaelo go tswewa go dumeletswe basadi ba leemo la kwa godimo, le fa go fitlhelela kgono jaaka o le mokwadi wa mohumagadi mo lefatsheng le le bontsing e leng la botona go ka nna bothata tota; ka lebaka le basadi ba le bantsi ba ile ba itsalla maina a senna  (e.g. George Sand, George Eliot).Botswana

Seopedi le sekwalammino sa moAmerika sa jazz Billie Holiday sa New York City ka 1947.
Bonnie Raitt ke seopedi sa moAmerika, setshameki sa katara ebile ke setshameki sa piano. Ke mofenyi wa difoka tse di lesome tsa Grammy, o itsewe gape ka go tshameka slide guitar.

Basadi e ntse e le batlhami, bakwalammino, batshameka diletswa, baopedi, batlhatlhi, baithuta mmino, baruta mmino, batlhatlhobi/bakgadi ba mmino/bakwaledi ba mmino le diphorofeshene dingwe tsa mmino. Go na le tsamao ya mmino, ditiragalo le   genres tse di amanang le basadi, women's issues le feminism. Ka bo 2010s, le fa basadi ba dira bontlhangwe jo bogolwane jwa diopedi tsa mmino o o tlwaelegileng popular music le mmino wa klasiki classical music , le bontlhangwe jo bogolwane jwa bakwalammino (bontsi ba bona e le baopedi-bakwalammino), go na le basadi ba le mmalwa fela ba e leng record producers, rock critics le rock instrumentalists. Le fa go na le palo e kgolo ya basadi ba e leng batlhami  women composers mminomg wa klasiki, go tloga ka nako Medieval period go fitlha go na jaanong, kemelo ya batlhami ba basadi e kwa tlase-tlase mo commonly performed classical music repertoire, historing ya dikwalo mmino le mo diencyclopedia tsa mmino; go fa sekao, ka mo Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara Schumann ke ene motlhami wa mohumagadi a le esi yoo a umakiwang.

Basadi ba dira bontlhanngwe jo bogolwane ya diopelanosi tsa diletswa mminong wa klasiki gape diperesente tsa basadi mo  orchestras e a oketsega. Sekwalwa sa 2015 sa diopelanosi  concerto kwa diCanadian orchestras tse kgolo, le mororo, se bontshitse gore 84% ya diopelanosi le Orchestre Symphonique de Montreal e ne e le banna. Ka 2012, basadi ba santse ba dirile 6% fela ya diorchestra tsa maemo a kwa godimo a Vienna Philharmonic orchestra. Basadi ga ba tlwaelega mo batshameking ba diletswa mminong wa tlwaelo jaaka rock le heavy metal, etswane go na le bahumagadi ba ditshamekadiletswa ba itsegeng le all-female bands. Basadi segolobogolo ba emetswe tlase mo extreme metal genres.[91] Basadi gape ba emetswe tlase botlhatlhing ba orchestral , go kgala tsa mmino/bokwaledi ba mmino, tlhagiso/tsweletso ya mmino music producing, le sound engineering. le fa ka sentshwuari ya bo 19 basadi ba ne ba sa rotloetswe go ka tlhama, ebile go na le basadi ba ba mmalwa ba e leng  di musicologists, basadi ba ile ba itshunya thutong ya mmino music education "... ka tsela eo ba ileng ba tlhagella ka megetla [mo lefapheng le] bofelelong ba bogare ba karolo ya sentshwuari ya bo 19th go fitlhelela sentshwuari ya bo 20."[92]

Go ya ka Jessica Duchen, mokwadi wa mmino wa London's The Independent, diopedi tsa basadi tsa mmino wa klasiki ba ["...too often judged for their appearances, rather than their talent"] atlholwa go le gontsi go ya ka ponagalo, go na le ka bokgoni ba bone" gape ba lebagane le kgatelelo ["... to look sexy onstage and in photos"] ya go lebega ba le sexy mo steijing le mo ditshwantshong."[93] Duchen o umaka gore le fa go "[t]here are women musicians who refuse to play on their looks, ... the ones who do tend to be more materially successful."] na le diopedi tsa basadi ba ba ganang go tshameka ka dipopego tsa bone, bao ba dirang jalo ba a atlega [93]

Go ya ka mokwaledi wa Seyalemoya 3 sa UK , Edwina Wolstencroft, madirelo a mmino wa klasiki kgale a buletswe go ka nna le basadi mo dikarolong tsa ditshamekong kgotsa  ditlhaletso, e fela ga se gantsi basadi ba nna mo maemong a taolo, jaaka a go nna moetaledipele wa orchestra [leader of an orchestra].[94] Mo mminong o o tlwaelegileng, le fa go na le basadi ba le bantsi ba diopedi bao ba gatisang dipina,  go na basadi ba se ba kae kwa morago ga  audio console boa ba dirang jaaka batlhagisi ba mmino [music producers], mothotsoko yoo a eteletseng pele ebile a tsamaisa lenaane la dikgatiso.[95]

See also[baakanya | edit source]

  • Sex assignment
  • Lists of women

Medical:

  • Feminine psychology
  • Gender differences

Dynamics:

  • Femininity
  • Feminization (sociology)
  • Matriarchy
  • Misogyny
  • Mitochondrial Eve
  • Sexism
  • Women as theological figures
  • Women in science

Political:

  • Gender studies
  • Womyn

Exploration:

  • List of female explorers and travelers
  • Women in space

References[baakanya | edit source]

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