Botswana

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Botswana

Lefatshe la Botswana (Setswana)
Republic of Botswana (Sekgowa)
Flag of Botswana
Folaga
Coat of arms of Botswana
Sekano sa setshaba
Motto: Pula
Botswana (centered orthographic projection).svg
Location Botswana AU Africa.svg
Moshate
and largest city
Gaborone
24°39.5′S 25°54.5′E / 24.6583°S 25.9083°E / -24.6583; 25.9083
Maleme a semmusoSekgowa[1]
National languageSetswana[1]
Merafe ya Batho
(2012[2])
Sedumedi
Demonym(s)
  • Batswana
  • Motswana
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary republic with an executive presidency[4][5]
• President
Mokgweetsi Masisi[6]
Slumber Tsogwane
Phandu Skelemani
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence 
• Established (Constitution)
30 September 1966
Fatshe
• Total
581,730 km2 (224,610 sq mi)[7] (47th)
• Water (%)
2.7
Batho
• 2021 estimate
2,588,423[8][9] (145th)
• 2022 census
2,346,179[10]
• Bokete
4.1/km2 (10.6/sq mi) (231st)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$43.474 billion[11] (120)
• Per capita
$19,287[11] (99)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$16.948 billion[11] (120)
• Per capita
$7,519[12] (101)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 53.3[13]
high
HDI (2019)Increase 0.735[14]
high · 100th
MadiPula (BWP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (Central Africa Time[15])
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd
dd/mm/yyyya
Driving sideleft
Calling code+267
Internet TLD.bw

Lefatshe la Botswana le ko borwa jwa Aforika, ke lefatshe le le dikaganyeditsweng ke a mangwe, ka jalo ga le a bapa le lewatle. Pele ga le tsaya boipuso ka kgwedi ya Phalane e tlhola masome a mararo ka ngwaga wa sekete, makgolo a roba bongwe, masome a le marataro le metso e le merataro mo go mmamosadinyana le ne le bidiwa Bechuanaland. Lefatshe la Botswana le dikaganyeditswe ke la Aforika Borwa kwa borwa-botlhaba go fitlha kwa borwa bophirima, Namibia kwa bophirima, Zambia kwa bokone le Zimbabwe kwa bokone-botlhaba. Lefatshe le le bidiwa Botswana, le reelelwa ka banni ba lone eleng Batswana.

Pina ya setshaba ya Botswana ke fatshe leno la rona, e e tlhamilweng ke Rre K T Motsete.

Madi a a dirisiwang ko Botswana ke Pula.

Botswana ke lefatshe le le farologanyeng le mafatshe a mangwe mo Aforika. Morago ga puso ya ga Mmamosadinyana, Botswana o ne a tsaya boipuso ka di 30 tsa Lwetse 1966. Morago ga boipuso, lefatshe la Botswana le ne la dirisanya mmogo le puso ya Mmamosadinyana go itlhabolola. Babusi ba Botswana ka nako eo ba ne ba leka ka bojotlhe go ntsha Botswana mo tlaleng. Domokoraga e ne ya busa lefatshe le e eteletswe pele ke Seretse Khama, tautona wa ntlha wa Botswana.

Gompieno Botswana ke lengwe la mafatshe a a tlhabologang ka bofefo mo lefatsheng ka bophara. Le fa mafatshe a mangwe mo Aferika a bolawa ke tlala le matshwenyego jaaka dintwa le tsietso setshaba, Botswana e kgonne go fenya mmaba mo ebileng e leng sekai mo Aforika. Lethathamo la lihlooho tsa linaha tsa Botswana

Melao ya lefatshe la Botswana[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Molao wa Bogosi (Chieftainship Act, CAP 41:01- 1933) 1. Temana ya bobedi (section 2) ya molao o, yare: Merafe ke e e herang bobedi e e tholegileng e bua puo ya Setswana, eleng Bakgatla, Bangwato, Balete, Bakwena, Batawana, Barolong, Batlokwa le Bangwaketsi. Temana eo gape e boa ere: dikgosi ke tsa merafe e o fela, ebile lefatshe ke la yone merafe eo fela. 2. Se se raya gore merafe e mengwe e kgaphetswe kwa ntle, ga e tsewe ele merafe, mme ele meratshwana e e ka fa tlase ga merafe e e buang Setswana. Maikaelelo le maikemisetso a molao o, ke go nyeletsa merafe e e kgaphetsweng kwa ntle jaaka: Babirwa, Batswapong, Bakalaka, Bayeyi, Bambukushu, Basubiya, Basarwa, Baherero, Bambanderu, Bakgalagadi, Bakgothu, fela jalo. Puso e solofetse gore meratshwana e, e nyelele, e komediwe ke e buang Setswana. 3. Morafe ke batho, ka jalo fa puso e tsaya gore morafe mongwe gase morafe, o raya gore morafe o o gase batho. Batho badirilwe ke Modimo, ba na le teme le ngwao e e remeletseng mo lefatshing le ba tshelang mo go lone, jaaka dijo, dikago, diaparo le didirisiwa tsa bone[16].

Molao wa lefatshe (Tribal Territories Act, CAP 32:02 - 1933) 1. Molao o, o dirafatsa tlhaloso e e dirilweng mo molaong wa bogosi, o o tlhalosang gore lefatshe ke la bo mang. 2. Se molao wa lefatshe o se dirang ke go kgaola melolwane go supa gore lefatshe la Bangwato le tswa fa le felela fa , la Bakgatla, Balete, Batlokwa, Bakwena, Bangwaketsi, Batawana, Barolong fela jalo. Malao o, o raya gore merafe e e kgaphetsweng kwa ntle ga ena lefatshe. 3. Merero yotlhe ya tiriso ya lefatshe e mo maruding a merafe e e ferang bobedi. Merafe e mengwe go tsewa gore e komeditswe, e ka fa tase ga emengwe. Ka jalo ga ba na tshwanelo ya lefatshe ele merafe, fa ese fela ka bongwe ka bongwe. 4. Se se raya gore merafe e e kgaphetsweng kwa ntle ga e kake ya ngongorega ka lefatshe ele sethopha sa morafe. Ba ka ngongorega fela ka bongwe ka bongwe, ba ngongoregela dilo tse di tshwanang masimo, le lwapa a bone fela. Merafe e e buang Setswana yone, eka ngongorega ele morafe, ba ngongoregela lefatshe la bone ka kakaretso. 5. Sekai ke gore Basarwa, ga ba ka ke ba ngongorega ka lefatshe ele Basarwa, ba ka ngongorega fela fa ba tlhakane le Bangwaketse, ebile le bone ba ipitsa Bangwaketse[17].

Lenaneo la tiriso ya metsi mo Botswana[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Lefatshe la Botswana le ntse le nosiwa metsi ke makalana a a farologaneng mo dingwageng tse di fetileng. Water Utilities Corporation e ntse e nosa ditoropo le ditoropo kgolo. Mo godimo ga moo, kompone e, e ntse e tshwaragane le Lephata la Metsi le Dikhansele tsa Dikgaolo ka bokete jwa metsi go abiwa le mafelo a mangwe a lefatshe leno. Maikaelelo a Lenaneo la go Dira Diphetogo mo Mhameng wa Metsi ke go baakanya ditsamaiso tse marara mme ka jalo go nne bonolo go isa metsi kwa bathong.Ke eng se se tlamileng gore go diragadiwe Lenaneo la Diphetogo tsa Mhama wa Metsi?Kanoko ya Lenaneo Legolo la Sechaba la Phatlalatso Metsi la 2005-2006, le ne la re go dirwe diphetogo tse dikgolo mo mhameng wa metsi, mme dingwe tsa tsone e le gore, go kgaoganngwe tsamaiso ya mhama wa metsi le makalana a mangwe a a thusang ka ditirelo. Morago ga dikanoko tse, ba ne ba gakolola gore Water Utilities Corporation e tseye tsamaiso yotlhe ya go nosa lefatshe leno[18].

Dipolotiki le puso ya Botswana[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

E sale lefatshe la Botswana le tsaya Boipuso ka ngwaga wa 1966,le tile le eteletswe pele ke Phutlhego ya Botswana Democratic Party e le mo bogompienong e ntseng e busa fela.Tautona wa lefatshe la Botswana ke Rre Seretse khama Ian Khama,yo o sa tswang go amoga maemo a mo go Rre Festus Mogae.Puso ya lefatshe la Botswana ke ya batho ka batho mme se se raya gore mongwe le mongwe o nale tshwanelo ya tlhopha phutlhego e a akanyang gore e ka mo tswa mosola mo tsamaisong ya lefatshe a phutlhologile[19].Go nale kagiso e e renang lefatshe ka bophara mme se se dire gore mafatshe ka bontsi a batle go itsalanya le rona.Batswana ka bontsi ke batho ba ba ratang go itse le gone go tlhaloganay ka mafatshe a sele,jalo se batka tirisanyo mmogo fa gare ga mafatshe.

Phemelo[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Ka nako ya boipuso, lefatshe la Botswana le kile la bo le sena sesole se se netameng. E ne e le morago ga gore Masole a Rhodesian le a Aforika Borwa ba lwantshiwe ke mephato ya ZIPRA le MK[14] mme Botswana Defence Force (BDF) ya tlhamiwa ka ngwaga wa 1977[20]. Tautona e ne e le ene molaodi wa sesole gape a nale dithata tsa go ka etelela lefatshe gape. Sesole sa Botswana se nale maloko a ka tshwara selekanyo sa 12,000.

Go latela phetogo ya sepolotiki sa Aforika Borwa, Maitlamo a sesole sa Botswana ba ne ba itlama go sireletsa diphologolo tsa tlholego, go thusa batho ka nako ya fa ba wetswe ke dibetsa tsa tlholego, gape le gone go tlisa kagiso. Lefatshe la United States e sa tswa go nna lefatshe le le neng la thusa Botswana ka ditlhabololo le sone seole sa Botswana (BDF), mme bontsi jwa bone ba ne ba fiwa ithuthuntsho ke ba lefatshe la U.S. Ithuthuntsho e ke yone e e tswewang e le yone ya konokono mo Botswana[21].

Diteme tsa Botswana[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Teme e e buiwang mo Botswana ke Setswana, ke sone se re ikgatsang ka sone go tswa mo mafatsheng a Africa e bile se golaganya merafe e farologanyeng go utlwana. Ka gore go nale merafe e e farologanyeng Botswana o nale diteme tse dingwe tse di buiwang ke yone merafe e jaaka:

Teme Morafe
Sebirwa Babirwa
Sesubiya Basubiya
Sesarwa Basarwa
Sekalaka Bakalaka
Sengwaketsi Bangwaketsi
Serolong Barolong
Sekgalagadi Bakgalagadi
Sehambukushu Bahambukushu
Seherero Baherero
Sengwato Bangwato
Setswapong Batswapong

Metswedi[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "About Our Country". Gov.bw. Retrieved 2022-04-17. Botswana has a number of tribes across the country, collectively known as Batswana. The official language is English and Setswana is the national language, although there are other spoken languages.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cia
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  4. "Africa :: Botswana – The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  5. Selolwane, Onalenna (2002). "Monopoly Politikos: How Botswana's Opposition Parties Have Helped Sustain One-Party Dominance". African Sociological Review. 6 (1): 68–90. doi:10.4314/asr.v6i1.23203. JSTOR 24487673.
  6. "Masisi to Lead Botswana as Khama Steps Down After a Decade". Bloomberg.com. 28 March 2018. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-03-28/masisi-to-lead-botswana-as-khama-steps-down-after-decade-at-helm. 
  7. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 – Country Report – Botswana (PDF). fao.org (Report). United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. 2015. p. 9. Total Country Area ('000)ha / 58 173
  8. ""World Population Prospects 2022"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  9. "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  10. Statistics Botswana (May 2022). "2022 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS PRELIMINARY RESULTS V2" (PDF). Statistics Botswana. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "IMF Country Specific Data". Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  12. "IMF Country Specific Data". Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  13. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  14. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF) (in English). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  15. Chapter: 01:04 (20 July 1984). "Interpretation Act 1984 (§40(1))". Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  16. kamanakao.tripod.com/melao.pdf
  17. kamanakao.tripod.com/melao.pdf
  18. www.mmewr.gov.bw/downloads/download.php?dir
  19. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Botswana
  20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botswana_Defence_Force
  21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botswana_Defence_Force

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