Thuto mo Aforika Borwa

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Bana ba sekolo kwa Kapa

Thuto mo Aforika Borwa e laolwa ke mafapha a mabedi a setshaba, e leng lefapha la thuto motheo (the department of Basic Education (DBE)),  le  le lebaganeng le dikolo tsa thuto motheo le tsa sekondari, le lefapha la thutokgolo le thupiso (the department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), le le lebaganeng le dithuto tsa kwa godimo le tsa vocation.  Pele ga 2009, mafapha a mabedi a, a ne a emetswe ke lefapha le le lengwe la e leng Department of Education.

Lefapha la thuto la DBE le tshwaragane le dikolo tsa setshabe, tsa poraebete (tseo di bitswang ke lefapha la thuto gore ke tse di ikemetseng),  disenthara tsa setcheng tsa tsweletsopele ya bana, (early childhood development (ECD) centres), le dikolo tsa bana ba ba nang le ditlhokego tse kgethegileng, (special needs schools). dikolo tsa setshaba le tsa poraebete di bitswa dikolo tse di tlwaelegileng, ke 97% ya dikolo tsa Aforika Borwa.

Lefapha la DHET le tshwaragane le dikholetshe tsa tsweletso thuto le tlhapetso, (further education and training (FET) colleges), disenthara tsa thuto ya bagolo tsa motheo letlhapetso, (adult basic education and training (ABET) centres), le ditheo tsa thutokgolo,(higher education (HE) institutions.)

Diprobense tse robongwe mo Aforika Borwa le tsona di na le mafapha a tsona a thuto a a tshwaraganeng le go tsenya tirong melawana-theo ya lefapha la setshaba, etswe gape  ba tshwaragane le ditlhoko dingwe tsa sedika.

Ka ngwaga wa 2010, thuto motheo system e ne e na le barutwana ba le 12 644 208, dikolo tse 30 586, le barutisi/barutabana ba le 439 394.[1] Ka ngwaga wa 2009, system ya thutokgolo yone e ne e na le baithuti ba le 837 779 kwa ditheong tsa thutukgolo, baithuti ba le 420 475 kwa ditheong tsa thuto tsa di FET tse di laolwang ke mmuso le disenthara tse 297 900 tsa ABET tse di mo taolong ya mmuso.[2]

Ka ngwaga wa 2013, mmuso wa Aforika Borwa o tla dirisa 21% ya madi a setchaba mo go tsa thuto.  Diperesente di le lesome tsa  bontlhangwe jwa madi a setshaba a a abetsweng tsa thuto ke tsa thutokgolo (HE). [3]

Go ya ka sensara ya setshaba (national census) ya 2011, magareng ga  batho ba Aforika Borwa,  baagi ba le 35.2% ba batho-batsho/MaAforika, 32.6%  ya bammala (coloureds), 61.6% ya baIndia/Asians le 76% ya basweu ba konoseditse/feditse thotu ya sekolo se se kwa godimo goba go fetisa. 41.7% ya bontsi ba batho e feditse thuto ya sekolo sa kwa godimo goba go fetisa, fa 8.6% ya batho ba mengwaga e e 20 le go feta ba sa fetsa sekolo sepe. [4]

Modi le Melawana[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Lefapha la thuto-motheo le etetswe pele ke the director-general Bobby Soobrayan, melawana-theo ya lona e dirwa ke minisitera Angie Motshekga le moema-nokeng wa gagwe (deputy minister) Enver Surty. Lefapha la thuto-kgolo le thupiso le etetswe pele ke  the director-general Mary Metcalfe,  melawana-theo ya lona e dirwa ke  minisitera Blade Nzimande le moema-nokeng wa gagwe Comfort Manana.

Mafapha a mabedi a duelelwa go tswa lekgethong la mmuso-gare (central government taxes). Lefapha la thuto-motheo le duelo seabe sa tuelo ya baratabana ba dikolo tsa mmuso, fa dikolo tse diikemetseng di duelwa seporaebete. Dikolo tsa mmuso, kwa tlase ga mabaka a a rileng di ka ikokoanyetsa maduo ka dituelo tse di ntshiwang ke batswadi.

Lenaneo la thuto-motheo (poraemari le sekondari)[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Grouping of grades into phases, bands, and schools

Ka semolao DBE e kgobokanya/tlhopolola  diema ka maphata a mabedi "bands" a bistwang (General Education and Training (GET)),  e e akaretsang seema sa 0 go tlhakanya le diema tsa 1 go fitlha go sa 9, le Further Education and Training (FET), e e akaretsang diema tsa 10-12 gape le (non-higher education vocational training facilities).

 GET (General Education and Training band) yona e arogantshitswe ka di  "phases" tse di bitswang Foundation Phase (seema sa 0 go tlhakana le seema sa 1 go fitlha go sa 3),  Intermediate Phase (seema sa 4 go fitlha go sa 6), le Senior Phase (seema sa 7 go fitlha go sa 9).

Motheo-taolo wa dikolo tse dintshi tse ditlwaelegileng mo Aforika Borwa ga e bontshe pharologanyo ya "bands" le "phases", le fa go le jalo.  Ka mabaka a histori, dikolo di le dintsi ke tsa "phoraemari"  (seama sa R go tlhakanya le seama sa 1 go fitlha go sa 7) go ba "sekontari, gape di itsiwe e le dikolo tse kgolo (seema sa 8 go fitlha go sa 12).

Diema tse o ka itlhophelang[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Dikolo dingwe tsa go rutela-gae le tsa phoraebete di letlelela go ka itlhophela go konosetsa dithuto tsa gago ka go oketsa ngwaga morago ga seema sa bo 12, ka nako tse dingwe se itsege e le seema sa bo 13 kgotsa "post-matric". Mo Aforika Borwa, lenaneo la mmuso la dikolo ga le na seema sa bo  13, empa se bopa karolo ya dikhariculamo tse e seng tsa Aforika Borswa (non-South African curriculums) tse ka nako e nngwe di latelwang ke dikolo tsa phoraebete tsa mo Aforika Borwa. .[5][6]

 Foundation Phase ya DBE  e akaretsa seema sa pele-ga-sekolo (pre-schulu/pre-school) se se bitswang seema sa R, go kaya "reception". Seema sa R se a gapeletega (compulsory), empa ga se dikolo tse tsotlhe tsa phoraemari tse rutang seema sa R. Seema sa R se ka nne sa tsenelwa kwa di pre-scholung. Diema dingwe tse di ka konosediwang kwa di pre-schulung di akaretsa seema sa 00  le sa 000 (le fa 000 le 00 di sa dirisiwe gotlhegotlhe). Seema sa R ka dinako tse dingwe se bitswa seema sa 0 (pronounced "grade nought"),[7][8] segolo setona mo dikolong tsa batho basweu tsa mo nakong e e fetileng, mo tiriso ya mothale o e neng e le setlwaedi.

Tekanyetso ya barutwana[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Go ya ka rephoto ya distatistiks tsa DBE tsa 2010 (di gatisitswe ka 2012), ka selekano go ne go na le barutwana ba le 30 go morutabana, 480 ya barutwana go ya ka sekolo, le barutabana ba le 16 go ya ka sekolo. Tekanyetso ya morutwana go morutabana re ka re e a tshwana mo diphorobentsheng tse tsotlhe, empa tekanyetso ya barutwana go ya ka sekolo e farologana go ya ka probense. Sekao, mo Gauteng go na le barutwana ba le 800 go ya ka sekolo le barutabana ba le 28 go ya ka sekolo, fa kwa Kapa Botlhaba go na le barutwana ba le 350 go ya ka sekolo le barutabana ba le 12 go ya ka sekolo.

Letseno le tiriso la sekolo [fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Dikolo tsa Aforika Borwa di amogela tshwaiso (grant) gotswa mo mmusong go duelela ditlhwatlhwa tsa tsamaiso ya bona, jaaka go tlhokomela digraonto (the grounds), ditlhwtlhwa tsa taolo (administrative costs), dituelo (salaries), dibuka le  ditlamelo tsa thuto (educational materials), le  extramural activities. Dikolo di le dintshi di tlaleletsa tshwaiso ya mmuso ka meedi mengwe ya letseno, jaaka dituelo tsa sekolo tse di lefiwang ke batswadi, ditiro tsa go kokoanya madi, le go amogela di donations.

Go ya ka kakaretso, dituelo tse di kwa godimo tsa thuto di kgoreletsa bana ba ba humanegileng go tsena dikolo tse di nang le  matlotlo goba tse di ikgonang  (affluent schools). Go go na seelo sa boleng ba dituelo tse sekolo se ka se elang. Batswadi ba ka kwalela sekolo go fokoletswa dituelo tsa sekolo gotlhelele go ba ka boripana, le fa dikolo tse dintshi tse di ikgonang/itshwaretseng di fa palo potlana ya barutwana thuso ya tuelelo (sekao, fa batswadi e le di (alumni)), empa ga se tlhokego ya semolao. [9][10]

Bana mo dikolong tsa Aforika Borwa ka setlwaedi ba tshwanetse go apara unifomo ya sekolo, ya tlhwatlhwa ya kwa godimo le ge ba sa fiwe kwa ntle ga tuelo, le fa go le jalo go a kgonega gore di reka di kile tsa dirisiwa (second-hand). Dikolo dingwe di dira extra mural activities) jaaka mehuta e e farologaneng ya metshameko le tsa setso, tse le tsona di tlhokang madi go di mentheina (maintain). Gape, dikolo di le dintshi di mentheina mafelo a tsona a botshamekelo.

Bogolo ba tshwaiso e mmuso o e duelang e ikaeletse segolo mo go lepalepanngwa le khumanego ya  lefelo-mabapi leo sekolo se leng mo go lone, gape le seelo sa go tlhoka tiro le seemo sa kakaretso sa thuto sa batho ba lefelo-mabapi leo. Ka jalo, dikolo tse di leng mo mafelo a go itsholetsweng di oketsa madi a le mantsi go tswa go metlhodi  e mengwe go ka mentheina maemo a thuto a a tshwanang, empa dikolo gotswa go mafelo a go itshletsweng go le gontsi di na le letseno le lengwe le le dirang gore seemo sa thuto se nne se le kwa godimo thata go na le la dikolo tse di sa ithsolelang.

Bogolo ba tshwaiso ya mmuso go ngwana le ikaegile mo go "quintille" ya sekolo. Ka ngwaga wa 2009, dikolo tse di mo quintille 1 (baitshodi/bahumanegi tota) le quintille 2 di amogetse R807 le R740 go ya ka ngwana ka ngwaga, respectively, fa sekolo sa quintille 4 le quintille 5 (bahumi totatota) se amogetse R404 le R134 go ya ka ngwana ka ngwaga. Dikolo tsa quintille 1-3 di ka kwala lokwalo-kopo go klasifaiwa jaaka dikolo tsa "go se duele" ("No Fee" school). 5% ya dikolo tsotlhe ke dikolo tsa quintille 5, mme 15% ya dikolo tsotlhe  ke dikolo tsa quintille 4.[11]

Sekai sa dituelo tsa sekolo [fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Ga go tlhokagale gore dikolo di phatlhalatse  dituelo tsa sekolo mo pontsheng ebile dikolo di le dintsi di bofitlha malebana le se, fela a ke dikao tsa dituelelo tsa sekolo se e seng sa poraebete mo Aforika Borwa:

  • Settler's High, Bellville: R15200 go ya ka ngwana ka ngwaga[12]
  • Monument Park High, Kraaifontein: R9000 go ya ka ngwana ka ngwaga[13]

Bohumanegi le dituelel tsa sekolo [fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Dikolo di ka se gane go amogela ngwana yo o dulang gaufi le sekolo. Dikolo di ka se gane ngwana go tsena goba tsa gana go mo naa karata ya rephoto le fa batswadi ba tlogeletse go duela dituelelo tsa sekolo, fela dikolo di letleletswe go ka sua batswadi ka ntlha ya go se duelele dituelo tsa sekolo. 

Go tloga ka ngwaga wa 1996, bana ba batswadi ba humanegileng thata ba exemptilwe semolao go bontlhanngwe go ba gotlhelele go se duelele dituelelo tsa sekolo.  Fa letseno le feta dituelelo tsa sekolo lesome palo mme le le kwa tlase ga dituelelo tsa sekolo lesome tharo palo, ngwana mo molaong o tshwanetswe ke seelo se se rileng sa phokoletso ya dituelelo tsa sekolo. Mo tirisong, di regulashene tse di thusa fela malapa a humanegileng thata, e seng malapa a batho ba ba dirang le ba letseno le le mo magareng. 

Dikhutsana le bana ba batswadi ba ba amogelang ditshwaiso tse diamanang le bohumanegi le bone ba exemptilwe mo go duelela dituelelo tsa dikolo.[11]

Go tloga ka ngwaga wa 2006 lefapha la thuto le aba ditholtloetso (incentives) tse di latelang mo dikolong tse 40% di humanegileng thata: fa sekolo se sa duedisi dituelelo tsa sekolo, lefapha la thuto le oketsa ditshwaiso go thiba tlhokego ya letseno go tswa dituelelong tsa sekolo.  Kwa tshimologong go ne go ikaeletswe go oketsa dithotloetso tse go  60% ya dikolo tse di humanegileng thata ka 2009.  Thotloetso ye e diriswa fela mo baneng ba ba leng mo GED band, bana ba ba ikaeletseng go fetsa seema sa 10-12 ba tshwanetse go duela dituelelo ka botlalo.

Ka ngwaga wa 2008, barutwana bangwe ba dimilione di le 5 mo dikolong tse di 14 264  benefitile mo dikolong tse di mo lenaneong la  No Fee school, gape bontsi ba barutwana ba ba kwa diprobentsheng tsa Kapa Botlhaba, Kwa-Zulu Natala le Limpopo. Ga se dikolo tsotlhe tseo di khwalifayang thotloetso e di e dirisang.

Dikolo tsa phoraebete[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Dikolo tsa phoraebete, gape di itsiwe jaaka dikolo tse di ikemetseng, ke dikolo tse di sa ruang ke mmuso. Go le go ntsi di ruilwe ebile di mo tsamaisong ya trusete, kereke kgotsa baagi, or ke khampane e sa boelweng. Ga se dikolo tse tsotlhe tsa phoraebete mo Aforika Borwa tse di duedisang dituelelo tsa sekolo tse di kwa godimg. Gape, dingwee tsa dikolo tsa phoraebete di amogela tshwaiso go tswa go mmuso, di ikaegile mo baaging bao di badirelang le dituelo tseo di lefisiwang.[14]

Lenaneo la thuto kgolo le thupelelo  [fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Go tsene kwa unibesity go tlhokega "Matriculation Endorsement", le fa diunibesity tse dingwe di ikgethele go oketse ditlhoko tsa seakhademiki. Aforika Borwa e na le sekethara ya kwa godimo e e mafolofolo, ka baithuti ba ba fetang dimilione ba ba kwadisitsweng mo diunibesithing, dokholetsheng le diunibesithing tsa thekenologi tsa naga.  diunibesithi tse tsotlhe di ikemetse, di  ripotha mo khanseleng tsa tsona e seng mo mmusong.  

Popololo ya diunibesithi le dithekhinikhono[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Molawana wa 1959, Extension of Universities Act of 1959, e dirile tlamelo ya  pharologanyo ya diunibesiti go ya ka pharologano ya merafe. Go tlaleletsa se, dinagamagae tse di ikemetseng di filwe diunibesithi tsa tsona. Morago ga pusetso gape ya dinagamagae tse di ikemetseng, go ne go na le diunibesithi le dithekhinikhono tse di 36 mo Aforika Borwa, go le gontsi di kgaufi-kgaufi ebile di abelana ka dithuto tse di tshwanang.[15]

Ka ngwaga wa 1994, mmuso o ile wa simolola ka bopolola diunibesithi le dithekhinikhono (universities and technikons) ka meselesele ya di momagano le diinkhoopharaeshene. E e fiditse ka Ferikgong ka ngwaga wa 2005. E tlhotse diinstitushene tse ntshwa tse di 22 go tswa go tse 36 tsa peleng. Tse di lesome tsa diunibesithi di filwe maina a masa.

Segologolo[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

1806 go ya go 1900[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Dikolo tsa pele tsa maYuropa mo Aforika Borwa di ne di tlhomilwe kwa Kholoning ya Kapa (Cape Colony) setlheng sa bofelo sa sentshwari ya bo lesomesupa ke bagolo ba kereke ya Dutshe (Dutch Reformed Church) ba ba neng ba itshetlegile mo dithutisong tsa se bibele, e e neng e tlhokega  go re kereke  e tlhomamiswe.  Kwa metseng-selegae, barutisi bajaki (itinerant teachers (meesters)) ba rutile dikwalo tsa mother le bokgoni ba dipalo  (basic literacy and math skills). Dikolo dimishinari tsa maBritishi  di ne tsa tlalatlala morago ga ngwaga wa 1799, fa maloko a ntlha a London Missionary Society a goroga kwa Kholoning ya Kapa. [16]

Puo ka potlako ya nna kgang e e masisi mo go tsa thuto. Dikolo di ka nna didasene tse pedi tsa loleme lwa seeng la Seisemane ( English-language schools) di ne di le tsamaisong kwa metse-selegae ya Kholoni ya Kapa ka ngwaga wa 1827, fela go nna teng ga tsona go ile ga gwetlha maAforikanere a a tsepameng a a neng a akanya gore  loleme lwa Seisemane le kharikhulamo ga di a tsamaelane le bophelo ba kwa metseng le mareo a seAforikanere. Sentuari ya lesomerobongwe gotlhelele, maAforikanere a kganetse melawanatheo ya mmuso e e neng e tsere tshoetso ya go kgabalatsa loleme le mareo a seBritishi, gape bontsi bo ile ba rutela bana ba ba rutegileng ka mo magaeng, kgotsa kwa di kerekeng.

Morago ga gore babusisi ba kholoni baMaisemane ba simolotse go tlhotlheletsa malapa go re a huduge go tloga Britthene go tla Kholoning ya Kapa ka ngwaga wa 1820, Ofisi ya Kholoni ya sekaseka lemorago la dikhwalifikheishene tsa bao ba kwadileng-lokwalokopo la go ka huduga. Ba tlhophile malapa a bao ba rutegileng, segolo setonna, go tlhoma bogone ba Maesemane mo Kapa Koloni. Morago ga go fitlha, batswadi ba ba ne ba bea thuto kwa setlhoeng. Mo nakong e yotlhe-yotlhe e, dikolo di le dintsi tsa sedumedi kwa botlhaba ba Kapa di amogetse ba ba  Xhosa ba ba ikwadiseditseng tumelelo; morago ga bogare jwa sentshwari ya bolesomerobongwe, kwa Natala bontsi ba batho ba ba buang seNguni ba rometse bana ba bone kwa dikolong tsa dimishinari. Mmuso le o ne o ile wa duelela dithupiso tsa barutisi ba BaAforika jaaka seabe sa bone sa khampaini ya go sisitletsa sentshwaring yotlheyotlhe ya bolesomerobongwe.[16]

Fa ngwaga wa 1877 o roga bangwe ba bana ba diperesente di le 60 ba batho-basweu ba mengwaga ya sekolo  ba ne ba kwadisitswe mo dikolong tsa kwa Natala, fela jalo fa diperesente tse di 49 kwa Kapa Koloni. Morago ga ntswa ya Maburu (e fedile ka 1902) kwa direphabliking tsa maAforikanere a pele, le fa go le jalo, dikwadiso di ne eme kwa tlase e le tota, ka diperesente di le 12 percent fela kwa  Orange Free State le diperesente tse 8 kwa Transvaal—segolothata e le dipoelo tsa boganana ba maAforikanere ga thuto ya Maisemane. Dikwadiso mo di rephapholiking tse di oketsegile fa morago ga fa mmuso wa Yunono (Union) o se na go dumelela tiriso ya seAforikantshe mo dikolong le go letlelela batswadi taolo e kgolo godimo ga thuto e potlana le ya sekhontari.[16]

Fa sentshwari ya bolesomerobongwe e wela, mefuta e meraro ya dikolo e ne e amogela thuso ya mmuso - dikolo tsa di-ward, kgotsa dikolo tse di nnyane tsa kwa metseselegaeng tse ka tlwaelo di neng dithapa morutisi a le mongwe; dikolo tsa sediko, se abelanang ka thuto-potlana mo metse setoropong e e mmalwa mo kgaolong; le dikolo tsa sekhontari  di se kae mo metseng setoropo e megolwane. Fela mo metlheng ya decade ya bofelo ya sentshwari ela, diphorobentshe tse tsotlhe tse nne di bonagetse di fedisa gotlhelele ikwadiso ya BaAforika mo dikolong tsa mmuso. Bana ba maAforika ba ne ba tsena dikolo tsa dimishine, segolo thata, mme ba ne ba rutwa ke baruti kgots ke barutisi ba sa rupelelwang, ka nako dingwe ba thuswa ke mmuso. [16]

Thuto-kgolo ka kakaretso e ne e beetswe bao ba ka kgonang go ya Yuropa, fela ka ngwaga wa 1829 mmuso o tlhomile kholetshe ya meraferafe ya Aforika Borwa (South African College), e morago e e neng ya ba Unibesithi ya Teropo ya Kapa (University of Cape Town). Diseminari tsa bodumedi di amogetse baikwadisi ba ba mmalwa ba maAforika e sa le gale ka ngwaga wa 1841. Ka ngwaga wa 1852 mmuso o o ikemetseng wa Transefala fa ka ngwaga wa 1854 mmuso wa Orange Frisetata o ile wa tlhoma  diinstitushene tsa o ne tsa thuto e kwa godimo ka loleme lwa se Datshe.  Mmuso o ile wa tlhoma Grey College— morago o ne wa tlhoma Unibesithi ya Fristata ( University of the Orange Free State)—kwa Bloemfontein ka ngwaga wa 1855 mme ya e baa ka fa tlase ga tlhokomelo ya kereke ya Datshe Refomom (Dutch Reformed Church). Institushene ya Grey e tlhomilwe kwa Port Elizabeth ka ngwaga wa 1856; kholetshe ya Graaff-Reinet e ne ya theiwa ka ngwaga wa 1860. Kholetshe ya Christian College e ne e thelwe kwa Potchefstroom ka ngwaga wa 1869 mme morago ya pataganngwe ka mo go Unibesithi ya Aforika Borwa (University of South Africa) ya reololwa leina go Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education.[16]

1900 go ya go 1948[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Mo go lateleng phenyo ya Maprithani ga Ntwa ya Aforika Borwa (South African War), MoKomoshinari o mo golo wa Britahani wa Borwa ba Aforika, Sir Alfred Milner, o tlisitse makgolo a barutisi go tswa Brithani, Khanada, Ostrelia, le New Zealand go logetsa loleme lwa Seisemane le mareo a setso a Brithani, bogolo-jang kwa direphapholiking tse pedi tsa peleng tsa MaAforikanere.  Go kganela tshwaetso ya Brithani, setlhopha sa dikereke tsa maAforikanere propousitse leneneo la thuto, Christian National Education, go direla jaka peu-motheo ya kharikhulamo ya sekolo. Mo tshimololong, mmusi o ile wa gana go duelela dikolo tseo di ikamagantseng le lenaneo le, fela  Jan C. Smuts, moetapele wa Transefala yo morago a ileng ya nna mopraeminisitara, o ne a ikaeletse thata mo poelanong magareng ga babui ba seAforikanere le Seisimane; o ne a kgatlhegela taolo ya mafelwana godimo ga kiarolwana tse di ntsi tsa thuto. Ikemelo ya diphorobentshe mo go tsa thuto e ile ya natlafatswa mo tshimololong ya sentshwari ya bomasomepedi,  mme mebuso ya diphorobetshe tse tsotlhe tse nne e dirisitse dituelelo tsa mmuso segolothata go ruta basweu.[16]

Mmuso wa National Party (NP) o kgonne go ka itshwarelela mo go tshosiweng ke kopantsho ya merafe kwa dikolong go ikagela tshegetso.  Phenyo e khutshwane ya NP mo ditlhophong tsa ngwaga wa 1948 e file seAforikamtshe seemo se sentsha mo dikolong mme le morago ga fao, dialogane tsotlhe tsa dikolo tsa kwa godimo di ne di tlamegile go elela ka kitso ya seAforikantshe le Seisemanae.  Mmuso wa NP o ile gape wa  busetsa thuto ya Christian National Education go re e nne yone filosofi e e tlhomamisang thuto.[16]

1948 go ya go 1974[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Pele ga ngwaga wa 1953, batho batsho ba le bantsi ba tsene dikolo tse di neng di tlhomilwe ke mekgatlho ya sedumedi. Dikolo tse di abelane ka tsa sekolo tse di tshwanang fela le tseo di neng di amogela bana ba basweu mo dikolong tsa setshaba. Go latela molao wa Bantu Education Act (No. 47) wa ngwaga wa 1953 mmuso o ne wa thatafatsa taolo ya one godimo ga dikolo tse kgolo tsa sedumedi ka go nyeletsa gotlhelele thuso yotlhe ya dituelelo, se sa gapeletsa dikereke di le di ntsi go rekisa dikolo tsa tsone go mmuso kgotsa go di tswalela gotlhegotlhe.[17]

Mmuso wa Aforika Borwa o ile wa tsenya tirong lenaane la thuto leo le neng le bitswa Christian National Education (CNE). Motheo wa lenaane le ke ya gore maikarabelo a motho setshabeng le diphatlha/tshono mo dipolotiking di tlhaloswa ka go tshwana semorafe ga motho yoo.

Le fa CNE e tsweleditse pele kutu ya go nyatsana semorafe, e ile ya tsholetsa maemo a go ruta pharologano ya ditso (cultural diversity) le go tsenya tirong go ruta ka loleme la ga mme (mother-tongue instruction) mo mengwageng ya mathomo a sekolo sa phoraemari. Mmuso o file maikatlapelo a go laola botsamaisi  go diboto tsa sekolo, tseo di tlhophilweng ke batswadi mo sedikong sengew le sengwe.[16]

Ka ngwaga wa 1959, molao wa Extension of University Education Act o kganetse diunibesithi tse ditlhomilweng go amogela bontsi ba baithuti ba batsho,  prohibited established universities from accepting most black students, le fa mmuso o ne wa tlhola diunibesithi tsa baithuti ba bantsho, bammala, le bamaIntia.[17]

Dikolo tsa bantsho di oketsegile mo mengwageng ya 1960, fela kharikhulamo ya bone e ne e diretswe go ba baakanya bana go dira mediro e e kwa tlase. Tiriso ya mmuso ya madi mo thutong ya bantsho o wetse go nngwe-lesomeng mo tirisong mo go basweu mo mengwageng ya 1970. Dikolo tsa bantsho di ne di na le difasility tsa boemo bo bo kwa tlase, baritisi, le dibuka-kwalelo.[16]

1974 go ya go 1983[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Kwa ngwaga wa 1974, Minisetara wa Thuto le Tswelopele wa Batho (Bantsho) o ntshitse taolo e ka setlwaedi e etsiweng jaaka "Afrikaans medium decree" mo go yone tiriso ya bobedi Seisemane le seAforikaans di ne di gapeletsega mo dikolong tsa bantsho tsa  disekhontari.[18] Mo taolong e, thutamatlhale (physical science le dithuto tsa (practical subjects) di ne di tla rutwa ka Seisemane, thutadipalo (mathematics) le  dirutwa tsa leago(social science) di ne di tla rutwa ka seAforikantshe, Dirutiwa tsa mmino le  setso tsone di ne di tla rutwa ka puo ya barutwana.  Minisetara o boletse gore lebaka la taolo e e ne e le go kgontshisa gore batho batsho ba kgone  go ka bua ka tolamo fa ba bua le batho basweu kaSeisemane le seAforikantshe. 

Taolo e e ne ya se amogalesege mo barutwaneng le barutising ka go tshwana, segolothata mo metse setoropong ya go tshwana le Johannesburg lekeisheneng la Soweto, moo gotlhelele gone go se ope yo a buang seAforikantshe. Tensions mabapi le tiriso ya loleme mo thutong di ile tsa thunyetsa mo dikgoberegong ka la 16 Phuku 1976, fa baithuti ba ne ba tseela kwa mebileng kwa Soweto mme  eventually kwa metse setoropong le metsemegolong e mengwe  mo nageng. Dikolo di ile tsa sotlega go fetisa fa disenyi di senya dithoto tsa sekolo. Baithuti ba ba neng ba leka go tsena sekolo le barutisi ba ne ba tlhaselwa, mme badiri dikolong ba bone go le bothata go ka tshwarelela ka ditiro tsa dikolo tse di tlwaelegileng.

1984 go ya go 1990[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Molao wa National Policy for General Affairs Act (No. 76) wa 1984 o tlametse ditokafatso di se kae thutong ya bantsho le ga tsweletse ka go dipharolaganyo tse lenaane thuto ya Batho e neng e le bitsa. 

Lefapha la Thuto le Thupelole ne lebagane le thuto ya bantsho kwa ntle ga mafeloselegae. Nngwe le nngwe ya dintlu-borarong tsa palamente -ya basweu, bammala, le maIntia- di ne di na le lefapha la thuto la karolo e le esi ya morafe. Nngwe le nnwge ya metseselagae e e lesome e ne ena le lefapha la one la thuto.  Ebile, mafapha a mangwe a mmuso a ne a laola bontlhanngwe bo bo rileng ba thuto.[16]

Thuto e ne e le ya kgapeletso go ditlhopha tsa merafe yotlhe, le mororo e farologane ka mengwaga, le molao o ne o dirisiwa ka go farologantshwa. Basweu ba ne ba tshwanetse go tsena sekolo mo magareng ga mengwaga ya bosupa le ya bolesometshelaa. Bana ba bantsho ba tshwanetsee go tseena sekolo go tloga ka ngwaga wa bosupa go fitlhela selakano sa seema sa bosupa kgotsa mengwaga ya bolesometshela.  Molao o o ne o tsentswe tirong o sa tiisiwa gape on e se mo mafelong a otlhe mo dikolo di neng di se teng. Go bana ba maAshia le ba mmala, thuto e ne e le ya kgapeletso magareng ga mengwaga ya bosupa le ya bolesometlhanano.[16]

Tekanyetso ya barutisi-morutwana mo dikolong tsa phoraemari e lekantshwa ka 1:18 mo dikolong tsa basweu, 1:24 mo dikolong tsa maAshia, 1:27 mo dikolong tsa bammala, le 1:39 mo dikolong tsa bantsho. Gapegape, diperesente di le 96 tsa barutisi botlhe mo dikolong tsa basweu di na le makwalo a go ruta, ntekane, diperesente di le 15 fela mo barutising mo dikolong tsa bantsho di tlhomamisitswe. Dipoelo tsa dikolo tsa sekhontari barutwaneng ba batsho, naga-boanamo,  kemo ya ditlhatlhobo ya kaloso dikolong tsa kwa godimo, e ne e le kwa tlase ga bontlhanngwe ba dipoelo-kelo ba basweu.[16]

1990 go ya go 1993[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Lenaane la thuto ya basweu le ile la bopololwa, fa go lebeletswe democracy, ke mmuso wa kgethololo. Go tloga tshimologong ya ngwaga wa 1991, dikolo tsa basweu di ne tsa tshwanelwa ke go tlhopha nngwe ya tse nne tsa di  "Models": A, B, C, or D. "Model C" e ne e le sebopelo sa seka-phoraebete, ebile dituelelo tse di fokoditsweng tsa mmuso, le ikemelo ya dikolo e e okeditsweng bogolo thata. Le fa gontse jalo dikolo tsa basweu tse di ntshi di kgethile status quo, ka ngwaga wa 1993, ka ntlha ya melawana ya mmuso, diperesents di le 96 tsa dikolo tsa basweu tsa setshaba di ele tsa nna dikolo tsa "Model C".[19]

Le fa popego ya "Model C" e ile ya fediswa ke mmuso wa morago ga kgethololo, lefoko le le santse le tlwaetswe go diriswa go tlhalosa dikolo tsa pele tsa mmuso tsa basweu-fela, le ka ngwaga wa 2013.

1994 go ya go 1997[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Kwa tlase ga Aforika Borwa ya Kgethololo, go ne go na le mafapha a thuto a a robedi a a neng a latela dikharikhulumo tse di farolaganeng, ebile di abelana ka dithutiso tsa seemo le boleng  tse farologaneng.  Se se akareditse mafapha go ya ka nagabophara go batho ba mmala, batho ba maIntia le ba batsho, lefapha la dikolo tse di ikemetseng, le mafapha a diphorobentshe a batho basweu mo go nngwe le nngwe ya diphorobentshe tse nne tsa mo malobeng. Dingwe tsa di madulo a batho (Bantustans) tse di neng di buseditswa morago mo go Aforika Borwa ka ngwaga wa 1994 le tsone di ne di na le mafapha a tsone a thuto.

Go ya ka mabaka a Khonstitushene ya nakwana, (Interim Constitution), puso ya Mandela  e bopolotse mafapha a gapagape le mafapha a thuto a theshari (tertiary), a kgaoganya maikarabelo magareng ga mafapha a thuto a a robong a diphorobentshe a maswa le lefapha la thuto  le le esi/losila setshaba. E ile gape ya simolola go kgopolola lenaane la tsa dithuto la mathomo ka go tlosa diteng tsotlhe tsa semorage tse tswapogileng mme ba tlhagisa  tlhatlhobiso e e tswelediwang (continuous assessment) mo dikolong.[20]

Molao wa South African Schools Act, 1996  o ne wa tlhongwa/thaiwa go "fa lenaane le le tshwanang la dithulaganyo, puso le dituelelo tsa dikolo".

1997 go ya go 2005[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Ka ngwaga wa 1997 mmuso o tshimoloditse lenaane la thuto le leswa le itsiweng ka Curriculum 2005, e e tla etshetlegang mo go "outcomes based education" (OBE). Ka ngwaga wa 2006 go ne go le pontsheng gore OBE jaaka boitekelo e tlholegile, mme e ile ya fegwa ka tidimalo.[21]

2006 go fitlhela jaanong - tiriso ya Seisemane[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Aforika Borwa e na le maleme a a 11 a semmuso.[22] mme ngwaga wa ntlha sekolong o fiwa ka maleme  otlhe a legae.[23]

Pele ga ngwaga wa 2009, dikolo tse di direlang bao e seng diboledi tsa Seisemane ba ne ba tshwanelwa ke go ruta Seisemane jaaka thutelo go tloga ka seema sa 3 mme dithutelo tsotlhe di ne di rutwa ka Seisemane go tloga ka seema sa 4 (kwa ntle ga dikolo tsa loleme la seAforikantshe). Go tloga ka ngwaga wa 2009, dikolo tse tsotlhe di ruta Seisemane jaaka thutelo go tloga seema sa 1 mme di thutelo tsotlhe di rutwa ka Seisemane go tloga go seema sa 4. Dikolo tsa loleme la SeAforikantshe ke dikarogo, ka gore dithutiso tsotlhe (kwa ntle ga maleme a mangwe) di rutiwa ka seAforikantse.[24]

Khuduego[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

khomishene ya Aforika Borwa Ditshwanelo tsa Botho (South African Human Rights Commission) e tlhotswe gore diperesente di le 40  tsa bana ba ba botsoloditsweng ba rile ba kile ba ba batswa ditlhabelo tsa borukhitlhi kwa dikolong (victims of crime at school). Go feta botlhanong jwa thobalano ka kgapeletso mo baneng ba Aforika Borwa go fitlhetswe e diragetse kwa dikolong. [25] Lefapha la Thuto le Senthara ya Tolamiso le Thibelelo ya Borukhutlhi (Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention) di simolotse lenaneo le bitswang Hlayiseka, leo maikaelelo a lone e leng go  staunch tlhakalatso ya dikhuduego ya dikolo mo dikolong tsa Aforika Borwa.[26]

Map of South Africa with English labels

Bona gape[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

Metswedi[fetola | Fetola Motswedi]

  1. Education Statistics in South Africa 2010, Published by the Department of Basic Education, February 2012
  2. Education Statistics in South Africa 2009, Published by the Department of Basic Education, November 2010
  3. Total spending on education in 2011 was 6 percent of GDP
  4. Census 2011
  5. Home-schooling Through High School - Love2Learn Home Schooling
  6. Roseway Waldorf
  7. Does my child have to go to ‘school’ in Gr.000 or can I send him when he’s 6, turning 7 (Gr.1)?
  8. Is there a difference between Gr0 and Gr00 ?
  9. School fees
  10. Free schooling for five million
  11. 11.0 11.1 NO fees Schools in South Africa - Policy Brief 7
  12. School fees in 2013
  13. Monument Park School fees (Afrikaans)
  14. http://www.isasa.org/component/option,com_hotproperty/Itemid,147/
  15. http://www.unisa.ac.za/default.asp?
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 South Africa country study.
  17. 17.0 17.1 http://www.stanford.edu/~jbaugh/saw/Lizet_Timeline.html
  18. http://africanhistory.about.com/od/apartheid/a/AfrikaansMediumDecree.htm
  19. 'Model C' is the model to emulate - 1 February 2011 - South AfricanInstitute of Race Relations
  20. http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/132/Jansen%20(1998)a.pdf
  21. http://www.timeslive.co.za/opinion/editorials/article538849.ece/OBEs-cost-too-high-to-calculate-among-SAs-young-people
  22. http://allafrica.com/stories/201106290516.html
  23. http://www.statssa.gov.za/?cat=16
  24. Megan Doidge, Factors influencing Grade 7 teachers' implementation of outcomes-based approaches in the National Curriculum when teaching "Human Reproduction", Doctors Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, 2014
  25. Violence rife in S Africa schools. (2008, March 12).
  26. "Children of wrath". Mail & Guardian. 22 August 2008. http://mg.co.za/article/2008-08-22-children-of-wrath. Retrieved 6 May 2013.